Wednesday, January 29, 2020

British Airways Essay Example for Free

British Airways Essay I remember going to parties in the late 1970s, and, if you wanted to have a civilized conversation, you didnt actually say that you worked for British Airways, because it got you talking about peoples last travel experience, which was usually an unpleasant one. Its staggering how much the airlines image has changed since then, and, in comparison, how proud staff are of working for BA today. British Airways employee, Spring 1990 I recently flew business class on British Airways for the first time in about 10 years. What has happened over that time is amazing. I cant tell you how my memory of British Airways as a company and the experience I had 10 years ago contrasts with today. The improvement in service is truly remarkable. British Airways customer, Fall 1989 In June of 1990, British Airways reported its third consecutive year of record profits,  £345 million before taxes, firmly establishing the rejuvenated carrier as one of the worlds most profitable airlines. The impressive financial results were one indication that BA had convincingly shed its historic â€Å"bloody awful† image. In October of 1989, one respected American publication referred to them as â€Å"bloody awesome,† a description most would not have thought possible after pre-tax losses totalling more than  £240 million in the years 1981 and 1982. Productivity had risen more than 67 percent over the course of the 1980s. Passengers reacted highly favorably to the changes. After suffering through years of poor market perception during the 1970s and before, BA garnered four Airline of the Year awards during the 1980s, as voted by the readers of First Executive Travel. In 1990, the leading American aviation magazine, Air Transport World, selected BA as the winner of its Passenger Service award. In the span of a decade, British Airways had radically improved its financial strength, convinced its work force of the paramount importance of customer service, and dramatically improved its perception in the market. Culminating in the privatization of 1987, the carrier had undergone fundamental change through a series of important messages and events. With unprecedented success under its belt, management faced an increasingly perplexing problem: how to maintain momentum and recapture the focus that would allow them to meet new challenges. Crisis of 1981 Record profits must have seemed distant in 1981. On September 10 of that year, then chief executive Roy Watts issued a special bulletin to British Airways staff: British Airways is facing the worst crisis in its history . . . unless we take swift and remedial action we are heading for a loss of at least  £100 million in the present financial year. We face the prospect that by next April we shall have piled up losses of close to  £250 million in two years. Even as I write to you, our money is draining at the rate of nearly  £200 a minute. No business can survive losses on this scale. Unless we take decisive action now, there is a real possibility that British Airways will go out of business for lack of money. We have to cut our costs sharply, and we have to cut them fast. We have no more choice, and no more time . Just two years earlier, an optimistic British government had announced its plan to privatize British Airways through a sale of shares to the investing public. Although airline management recognized that the 58,000 staff was too large, they expected increased passenger volumes and improved staff productivity to help them avoid complicated and costly employee reductions. While the 1978-79 plan forecasted passenger traffic growth at 8 to 10 percent, an unexpected recession left BA struggling to survive on volumes, which, instead, decreased by more that 4 percent. A diverse and aging fleet, increased fuel costs, and the high staffing costs forced the government and BA to put privatization on hold indefinitely. With the airline technically bankrupt, BA management and the government would have to wait before the public would be ready to embrace the ailing airline. The BA Culture, 1960-1980 British Airways stumbled into its 1979 state of inefficiency in large part because of its history and culture. In August 1971, the Civil Aviation Act became law, setting the stage for the British Airways Board to assume control of two state-run airlines, British European Airways (BEA) and British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC), under the name British Airways. In theory, the board was to control policy over British Airways; but, in practice, BEA and BOAC remained autonomous, each with its own chairman, board, and chief executive. In 1974, BOAC and BEA finally issued one consolidated financial report. In 1976, Sir Frank (later Lord) McFadzean replaced the group division with a structure based on functional divisions to officially integrate the divisions into one airline. Still, a distinct split within British Airways persisted throughout the 1970s and into the mid-1980s. After the Second World War, BEA helped pioneer European civil aviation. As a pioneer, it concerned itself more with building an airline infrastructure than it did with profit. As a 20-year veteran and company director noted: â€Å"The BEA culture was very much driven by building something that did not exist. They had built that in 15 years, up until 1960. Almost single-handedly they opened up air transport in Europe after the war. That had been about getting the thing established. The marketplace was taking care of itself. They wanted to get the network to work, to get stations opened up.† BOAC had also done its share of pioneering, making history on May 2, 1952, by sending its first jet airliner on a trip from London to Johannesburg, officially initiating jet passenger service. Such innovation was not without cost, however, and BOAC found itself mired in financial woes throughout the two decades following the war. As chairman Sir Matthew Slattery explained in 1962: â€Å"The Corporation has had to pay a heavy price for pioneering advanced technologies.† Success to most involved with BEA and BOAC in the 1950s and 1960s had less to do with net income and more to do with â€Å"flying the British flag.† Having inherited numerous war veterans, both airlines had been injected with a military mentality. These values combined with the years BEA and BOAC existed as government agencies to shape the way British Airways would view profit through the 1970s. As former director of human resources Nick Georgiades said of the military and civil service history: â€Å"Put those two together and you had an organization that believed its job was simply to get an aircraft into the air on time and to get it down on time.† While government support reinforced the operational culture, a deceiving string of profitable years in the 1970s made it even easier for British Airways to neglect its increasing inefficiencies. Between 1972 and 1980, BA earned a profit before interest and tax in each year except for one. â€Å"This was significant, not least because as long as the airline was returning profits, it was not easy to persuade the workforce, or the management for that matter, the fundamental changes were vital. Minimizing cost to the state became the standard by which BA measured itself. As one senior manager noted: â€Å"Productivity was not an issue. People were operating effectively, not necessarily efficiently. There were a lot of people doing other peoples jobs, and there were a lot of people checking on people doing other peoples jobs† . . . As a civil service agency, the airline was allowed to become inefficient because the thinking in state-run operations was, â€Å"If youre providing se rvice at no cost to the taxpayer, then youre doing quite well.† A lack of economies of scale and strong residual loyalties upon the merger further complicated the historical disregard for efficiency by BEA and BOAC. Until Sir Frank McFadzeans reorganization in 1976, British Airways had labored under several separate organizations (BOAC; BEA European, Regional, Scottish, and Channel) so the desired benefits of consolidation had been squandered. Despite operating under the same banner, the organization consisted more or less of separate airlines carrying the associated costs of such a structure. Even after the reorganization, divisional loyalties prevented the carrier from attaining a common focus. â€Å"The 1974 amalgamation of BOAC with the domestic and European divisions of BEA had produced a hybrid racked with management demarcation squabbles. The competitive advantages sought through the merger had been hopelessly defeated by the lack of a unifying corporate culture.† A BA director summed up how distracting the merger proved: â€Å"There wasnt enough management time devoted to managing the changing environment because it was all focused inwardly on resolving industrial relations problems, on resolving organizational conflicts. How do you bring these very, very different cultures together?† Productivity at BA in the 1970s was strikingly bad, especially in contrast to other leading foreign airlines. BAs productivity for the three years ending March 31, 1974, 1975, and 1976 had never exceeded 59 percent of that of the average of the other eight foreign airline leaders. Service suffered as well. One human resources senior manager recalled the â€Å"awful† service during her early years in passenger services: â€Å"I remember 10 years ago standing at the gate handing out boxes of food to people as they got on the aircraft. Thats how we dealt with service.† With increasing competition and rising costs of labor in Britain in the late 1970s, the lack of productivity and poor service was becoming increasingly harmful. By the summer of 1979, the number of employees had climbed to a peak of 58,000. The problems became dangerous when Britains worst recession in 50 years reduced passenger numbers and raised fuel costs substantially. Lord King Takes the Reins Sir John (later Lord) King was appointed chairman in February of 1981, just a half-year before Roy Wattss unambiguously grim assessment of BAs financial state. King brought to British Airways a successful history of business ventures and strong ties to both the government and business communities. Despite having no formal engineering qualifications, King formed Ferrybridge Industries in 1945, a company which found an unexploited niche in the ball-bearing industry. Later renamed the Pollard Ball and Roller Bearing Company, Ltd., Kings company was highly successful until he sold it in 1969. In 1970, he joined Babcock International and as chairman led it through a successful restructuring during the 1970s. Kings connections were legendary. Hand-picked by Margaret Thatcher to run BA, Kings close friends included Lord Hanson of Hanson Trust and the Princess of Waless family. He also knew personally Presidents Reagan and Carter. Kings respect and connections proved helpful both in recruiti ng and in his dealings with the British government. One director spoke of the significance of Kings appointment: â€Å"British Airways needed a chairman who didnt need a job. We needed someone who could see that the only way to do this sort of thing was radically, and who would be aware enough of how you bring that about.† In his first annual report, King predicted hard times for the troubled carrier. â€Å"I would have been comforted by the thought that the worst was behind us. There is no certainty that this is so.† Upon Wattss announcement in September of 1981, he and King launched their Survival plan— â€Å"tough, unpalatable and immediate measures† to stem the spiraling losses and save the airline from bankruptcy. The radical steps included reducing staff numbers from 52,000 to 43,000, or 20 percent, in just nine months; freezing pay increases for a year; and closing 16 routes, eight on-line stations, and two engineering bases. It also dictated halting cargo-only services and selling the fleet, and inflicting massive cuts upon offices, administrative services, and staff clubs. In June of 1982, BA management appended the Survival plan to accommodate the reduction of another 7,000 staff, which would eventually bring the total employees down from about 42,000 to nearly 35,000. BA accomplished its reductions through voluntary measures, offering such generous severance that they ended up with more volunteers than necessary. In total, the airline dished out some  £150 million in severance pay. Between 1981 and 1983, BA reduced its staff by about a quarter. About the time of the Survival plan revision, King brought in Gordon Dunlop, a Scottish accountant described by one journalist as â€Å"imaginative, dynamic, and extremely hardworking,† euphemistically known on Fleet Street as â€Å"forceful,† and considered by King as simply â€Å"outstanding.† As CFO, Dunlops contribution to the recovery years was significant. When the results for the year ending March 31, 1982, were announced in October, he and the board ensured 1982 would be a watershed year in BAs turnaround. Using creative financing, Dunlop wrote down  £100 million for redundancy costs,  £208 million for the value of the fleet (which would ease depreciation in future years), even an additional  £98 million for the 7,000 redundancies which had yet to be effected. For the year, the loss before taxes amounted to  £114 million. After taxes and extraordinary items, it totalled a staggering  £545 million. Even King might have admitted that the worst was behind them after such a report. The chairman immediately turned his attention to changing the airlines image and further building his turnaround team. On September 13, 1982, King relieved Foote, Cone Belding of its 36-year-old advertising account with BA, replacing it with Saatchi Saatchi. One of the biggest account changes in British history, it was Kings way of making a clear statement that the BA direction had changed. In April of 1983, British Airways launched its â€Å"Manhattan Landing† campaign. King and his staff sent BA management personal invitations to gather employees and tune in to the inaugural six-minute commercial. Overseas, each BA office was sent a copy of the commercial on videocassette, and many held cocktail parties to celebrate the new thrust. â€Å"Manhattan Landing† dramatically portrayed the whole island of Manhattan being lifted from North America and whirled over the Atlantic before awestruck witnesses in the U.K. After the initial airing, a massive campaign was run with a 90-second version of the commercial. The ad marked the beginning of a broader campaign, â€Å"The Worlds Favourite Airline,† reflective of BAs status as carrier of the most passengers internationally. With the financial picture finally brightening, BA raised its advertising budget for 1983-84 to  £31 million, compared with  £19 million the previous year, signalling a clear commitment to changing the corporate image. Colin Marshall Becomes Chief Executive In the midst of the Saatchi Saatchi launch, King recruited Mr. (later Sir) Colin Marshall, who proved to be perhaps the single most important person in the changes at British Airways. Appointed chief executive in February 1983, Marshall brought to he airline a unique resume. He began his career as a management trainee with Hertz in the United States. After working his way up the Hertz hierarchy in North America, Marshall accepted a job in 1964 to run rival Aviss operations in Europe. By 1976, the British-born businessman had risen to chief executive of Avis. In 1981, he returned to the U.K. as deputy chief and board member of Sears Holdings. Fulfilling one of his ultimate career ambitions, he took over as chief executive of British Airways in early 1983. Although having no direct experience in airline management, Marshall brought with him two tremendous advantages. First, he understood customer service, and second, he had worked with a set of c ustomers quite similar to the airline travel segment during his car rental days. Marshall made customer service a personal crusade from the day he entered BA. One executive reported: â€Å"It was really Marshall focusing on nothing else. The one thing that had overriding attention the first three years he was here was customer service, customer service, customer service—nothing else. That was the only thing he was interested in, and its not an exaggeration to say that was his exclusive focus.† Another senior manager added: â€Å"He has certainly put an enabling culture in place to allow customer service to come out, where, rather than people waiting to be told what to do to do things better, its an environment where people feel they can actually come out with ideas, that they will be listened to, and feel they are much more a part of the success of the company.† Not just a strong verbal communicator, Marshall became an active role model in the terminals, spending time with staff during morning and evenings. He combined these actions with a nu mber of important events to drive home the customer service message. Corporate Celebrations, 1983-1987 If Marshall was the most important player in emphasizing customer service, then the Putting People First (PPF) program was the most important event. BA introduced PPF to the front-line staff in December of 1983 and continued it through June of 1984. Run by the Danish firm Time Manager International, each program cycle lasted two days and included 150 participants. The program was so warmly received that the non-front-line employees eventually asked to be included, and a one-day â€Å"PPF II† program facilitated the participation of all BA employees through June 1985. Approximately 40,000 BA employees went through the PPF programs. The program urged participants to examine their interactions with other people, including family, friends, and, by association, customers. Its acceptance and impact was extraordinary, due primarily to the honesty of its message, the excellence of its delivery, and the strong support of management. Employees agreed almost unanimously that the programs message was sincere and free from manipulation, due in some measure to the fact that BA separated itself from the programs design. The program emphasized positive relations with people in general, focusing in large part on non-work-related relationships. Implied in the positive relationship message was an emphasis on customer service, but the program was careful to aim for the benefit of employees as individuals first. Employees expressed their pleasure on being treated with respect and relief that change was on the horizon. As one frontline ticket agent veteran said: â€Å"I found it fascinating, very, very enjoyable. I thought it was very good for British Airways. It made people aware. I dont think people give enough thought to peoples reaction to each other. . . . It was hardhitting. It was made something really special. When you were there, you were treated extremely well. You were treated as a VIP, and people really enjoyed that. It was reverse roles, really, to the job we do.† A senior manager spoke of the confidence it promoted in the changes: â€Å"It was quite a revelation, and I thought it was absolutely wonderful. I couldnt believe BA had finally woken and realized where its bread was buttered. There were a lot of cynics at the time, but for people like myself it was really great to suddenly realize you were working for an airline that had the guts to change, and that its probabl y somewhere where you want to stay.† Although occasionally an employee felt uncomfortable with the â€Å"rah-rah† nature of the program, feeling it perhaps â€Å"too American,† in general, PPF managed to eliminate cynicism. The excellence in presentation helped signify a sincerity to the message. One senior manager expressed the consistency. â€Å"There was a match between the message and the delivery. You cant get away with saying putting people first is important, if in the process of delivering that message you dont put people first.† Employees were sent personal invitations, thousands were flown in from around the world, and a strong effort was made to prepare tasteful meals and treat everyone with respect. Just as important, BA released every employee for the program, and expected everyone to attend. Grade differences became irrelevant during PPF, as managers and staff members were treated equally and interacted freely. Moreover, a senior director came to conclude every single PPF session with a question and answer session. Colin Marshall himself frequently attended these closing sessions, answering employee concerns in a manner most felt to be extraordinarily frank. The commitment shown by management helped BA avoid the fate suffered by British Rail in its subsequent attempt at a similar program. The British Railway program suffered a limited budget, a lack of commitment by management and interest by staff, and a high degree of cynicism. Reports surfaced that employees felt the program was a public relations exercise for the outside world, rather than a learning experience for staff. About the time PPF concluded, in 1985, BA launched a program for managers only called, appropriately, Managing People First (MPF). A five-day residential program for 25 managers at a time, MPF stressed the importance of, among other topics, trust, leadership, vision, and feedback. On a smaller scale, MPF stirred up issues long neglected at BA. One senior manager of engineering summarized his experience: â€Å"It was almost as if I were touched on the head. . . . I dont think I even considered culture before MPF. Afterwards I began to think about what makes people tick. Why do people do what they do? Why do people come to work? Why do people do things for some people that they wont do for others?† Some participants claimed the course led them to put more emphasis on feedback. One reported initiating regular meetings with staff every two weeks, in contrast to before the program when he met with staff members only as problems arose. As Marshall and his team challenged the way people thought at BA, they also encouraged changes in more visible ways. In December 1984, BA unveiled its new fleet livery at Heathrow airport. Preparations for the show were carefully planned and elaborate. The plane was delivered to the hangar-turned-theater under secrecy of night, after which hired audio and video technicians put together a dramatic presentation. On the first night of the show, a darkened coach brought guests from an off-site hotel to an undisclosed part of the city and through a tunnel. The guests, including dignitaries, high-ranking travel executives, and trade union representatives, were left uninformed of their whereabouts. To their surprise, as the show began an aircraft moved through the fog and laser lights decorating the stage and turned, revealing the new look of the British Airways fleet. A similar presentation continued four times a day for eight weeks for all staff to see. On its heels, in May of 1985, British Airways unveiled its new uniforms, designed by Roland Klein. With new leadership, strong communication from the top, increased acceptance by the public, and a new physical image, few on the BA staff could deny in 1985 that his or her working life had turned a new leaf from its condition in 1980. Management attempted to maintain the momentum of its successful programs. Following PPF and MPF, it put on a fairly successful corporatewide program in 1985 called â€Å"A Day in the Life† and another less significant program in 1987 called â€Å"To Be the Best.† Inevitably, interest diminished and cynicism grew with successive programs. BA also implemented an â€Å"Awards for Excellence† program to encourage employee input. Colin Marshall regularly communicated to staff through video. While the programs enjoyed some success, not many employees felt â€Å"touched on the head† by any successor program to PPF and MPF.

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

The Empirical Reality of Walden Two of B.F. Skinner Essay -- Psycholog

The Empirical Reality of Walden Two B.F. Skinner’s Walden Two is the fictitious account of an eclectic group’s visit to a modern utopian community started by psychologist T.E. Frazier. Authors often depict â€Å"perfect societies† in novels, as the subject holds wide appeal and great creative opportunity. Aldous Huxley envisioned a Brave New World; Lois Lowry wove the tale of The Giver. What sets Walden Two apart from such books? Simply stated, Skinner’s work truly does not seem as if it belongs in the fantasy or fiction genre, as the others do. The novel reads as an actual experiment, albeit one performed in a text-only version of the world. The author perfectly follows the steps of a scientific investigation throughout the plot, meeting nearly all goals of the scientific enterprise. This approach leaves readers practically incapable of brushing the novel’s bold statements off as fiction: to do so feels equivalent to denying a proven reality. For a positive future, it is only common sense that a generation of healthy children must be raised. A stable family unit and personal attention seem logical ways to rear successful young people. Yet statistics show that in 2003, approximately 37,000 marriages and 21,000 divorces occurred in Kentucky; other states showed very similar ratios, such as Ohio, with about 73,000 marriages and 40,000 divorces (NVSR, Pg. 6). Clearly, many students already have â€Å"broken homes† as obstacles, but the homogenous treatment of children in schools adds even more difficulty. Despite pre-existing differences in personal preferences, subject aptitudes, and upbringings, for instance, the system calls for children to move along a determined national curriculum of academic acceptabilit... ...hiatry Vol. 8, No. 1. 2003 . United States. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. National Vital Statistics Reports Vol. 52 Num. 22. â€Å"Births, Marriages, Divorces, and Deaths: Provisional Data for 2003.† 10 June 2004 . WebMD Health. Health Guide A-Z: Stress Management. â€Å"Effects of Stress.† Page 2. 4 Nov. 2002. . Weiten, Wayne. â€Å"The Research Enterprise in Psychology.† Psychology Themes and Variations. 6th ed. 2005. The Empirical Reality of Walden Two of B.F. Skinner Essay -- Psycholog The Empirical Reality of Walden Two B.F. Skinner’s Walden Two is the fictitious account of an eclectic group’s visit to a modern utopian community started by psychologist T.E. Frazier. Authors often depict â€Å"perfect societies† in novels, as the subject holds wide appeal and great creative opportunity. Aldous Huxley envisioned a Brave New World; Lois Lowry wove the tale of The Giver. What sets Walden Two apart from such books? Simply stated, Skinner’s work truly does not seem as if it belongs in the fantasy or fiction genre, as the others do. The novel reads as an actual experiment, albeit one performed in a text-only version of the world. The author perfectly follows the steps of a scientific investigation throughout the plot, meeting nearly all goals of the scientific enterprise. This approach leaves readers practically incapable of brushing the novel’s bold statements off as fiction: to do so feels equivalent to denying a proven reality. For a positive future, it is only common sense that a generation of healthy children must be raised. A stable family unit and personal attention seem logical ways to rear successful young people. Yet statistics show that in 2003, approximately 37,000 marriages and 21,000 divorces occurred in Kentucky; other states showed very similar ratios, such as Ohio, with about 73,000 marriages and 40,000 divorces (NVSR, Pg. 6). Clearly, many students already have â€Å"broken homes† as obstacles, but the homogenous treatment of children in schools adds even more difficulty. Despite pre-existing differences in personal preferences, subject aptitudes, and upbringings, for instance, the system calls for children to move along a determined national curriculum of academic acceptabilit... ...hiatry Vol. 8, No. 1. 2003 . United States. Center for Disease Control and Prevention. National Center for Health Statistics. National Vital Statistics Reports Vol. 52 Num. 22. â€Å"Births, Marriages, Divorces, and Deaths: Provisional Data for 2003.† 10 June 2004 . WebMD Health. Health Guide A-Z: Stress Management. â€Å"Effects of Stress.† Page 2. 4 Nov. 2002. . Weiten, Wayne. â€Å"The Research Enterprise in Psychology.† Psychology Themes and Variations. 6th ed. 2005.

Monday, January 13, 2020

Marketing of Hardbite Chips

Hardbite Chips Langara College School of Management MARK 1115 Introduction to Marketing D. Hill 23 November 2009 Executive Summary This report provides an analysis of Hardbite Chips and the Snack Food Industry and offers recommendations for Hardbite Chips to develop an effective marketing plan. Hardbite Chips is an environmentally sustainable business that provides healthy, good-tasting, and quality potato chips. The target market we have selected for Hardbite Chips is health conscious consumers, particularly those with children.It is our belief that the consumers will be attracted by the healthy features of our product and will be willing to pay slightly more for these benefits. It is our objective to significantly increase awareness of our product among these consumers. As our funds for promotional activities are limited and our target market can be hard to reach our marketing mix focuses heavily on sales promotion. Advertising and public relations will help us promote the features of our product and position it as a high quality brand in the minds of consumers. We hope to use personal selling to increase the number of retailers that carry our product.We believe Hardbite Chips has the ability to obtain satisfactory profits and grow the business. This will allow the company to better compete against the numerous competitors in the industry and increase sales. As the business grows, more funds can be spent on promotional activities enabling the company to expand its target market and appeal to more retailers. Table of Contents Current Marketing Strategy†¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 1 Company Mission Statement.. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â ‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 1 Internal and External Analysis PEST Analysis†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 2 SWOT Analysis†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 3 Competitive Analysis†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 4 Target Market†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â ‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. 5 Marketing Objectives and Issues†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 6 Marketing Research†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 7 Product Strategy†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 8 Pricing Strategy†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 9 Distribution Strategy†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 10 Integrated Marketing Strategy†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 10 Conclusion†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 12Appendix I†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 13 Endnotes†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. 14 Bibliography†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢ € ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ 15 Current Marketing Situation The Canadian snack food market presents a lucrative opportunity for new and existing companies in the industry. In 2008, Canadians ate an average of 3. 2 kg of potato chips. 1 Food stores capture the majority of snack food purchases in 2001 at approximately 67% and supermarkets accounted for approximately two-thirds of this. Convenience stores took the third largest share of the market at around 13%.Mass merchandisers and wholesale club stores have increased their market share in recent years, passing convenience stores, as more of these types of locations have opened in Canada. However, this change has not yet significantly affected food stores. 2 In 2007, Canadian retail grocery stores sold over $1. 8 billion worth of snack food, with potato chips accounting for approximately $550 million. This continues the recent trend of 6% growth in annual retail sales of potato chips. 3 This growth has encouraged companies to expand into nich e markets by offering unique flavours and organic products.The Canadian snack food industry has seen an increase in new entrants in recent years despite the presence of big corporations. These big corporations have economies of scale which give them a significant competitive advantage in terms of cost. Furthermore, these corporations benefit from massive advertising budgets that allow them to hold on to their majority market share. Frito-Lays, a division of PepsiCo. , is the leader in the Canadian snack food industry with multiple SBUs that offer many different products, including different varieties of chips in various flavours. However, the opportunity exists for smaller companies to come in nd target niche markets. In fact, â€Å"in 2006, 106 Canadian snack food manufactures shipped $1. 6 billion of product†. 4 However, big corporations are beginning to see the potential of these markets and are beginning to expand into them. A good example of this is Frito-Lays and the in troduction of their Wasabi flavoured chips5. Company Mission Statement Hardbite Chips is dedicated to providing our customers with a healthy, good-tasting, and quality potato chip. In doing so, we are committed to be an environmentally sustainable company with strong ties to the community. Internal and External Analysis PEST Analysis: Hardbite Chips | |Political Environment |Economical Environment | |Mandatory nutrition labeling |Economic recession | |Provincial Government policy bans junk food sales in elementary and |Tough to get capital | |high schools |People are less likely to spend money on unknown premium brands | |Social Cultural Environment |Technological Environment | |Trend away from unhealthy snacks |Equipment needed to expand production is expensive | |Potato chips blamed for contributing to obesity | | |Recent discovery of acrylamide, a possible carcinogen, found in | | |carbohydrates cooked at high temperatures | | |People looking to buy environmentally friendly products | | |Competitive Environment |Demographic Environment | |Heavy competition in industry |Many consumers more interested in environmentally friendly products | |Low brand loyalty among consumers in industry |Many people are concerned about health | |Large corporations have majority of market share | | SWOT Analysis: Hardbite Chips | |Strengths |Weaknesses | |Product is hand-cooked |Limited cash-flow makes it difficult to grow | |Potatoes are grown locally |Brand is fairly unknown | |Focus on quality |Small production facility compared to major competitors | |Unique flavours | | |Growing brand awareness | | |Sold in many health stores and on many campuses in BC.Also sold | | |across BC in well known stores such as London Drugs, Shoppers Drug | | |Mart, Overwaitea, and IGA Marketplace locations | | |Opportunities |Threats | |Expanding market |Provincial Government policy bans junk food sales in elementary and | |Many consumers are becoming more interested in environme ntally |high schools |friendly products |Larger competition may enter market | |Many consumers are concerned about health |Economic recession | |Opportunity to target niche ethnic markets |Tough to get capital | | |People are less likely to spend money on unknown premium brands | | |Low brand loyalty among consumers in industry | Competitive Analysis We wish to position Hardbite Chips as a top quality potato chip brand in the minds of consumers. It is our desire to utilize the frequent consumer assumption that quality and price are related. [pic] We believe Hardbite Chips has the potential to develop a niche competitive advantage. Our primary focus is on serving health conscious consumers.Thus, our most important unique selling proposition is to focus on the healthy qualities of our product. By producing an all natural potato chip that is free of trans-fats, we believe we will appeal to health conscious consumers. Also, Hardbite Chips was an early entrant into the expanding healt hy potato chip market and the company has expanded its distribution points from originally selling in health food stores. It is our belief that this has created brand recognition among the early adopters of healthy snacks. As the number of consumers purchasing healthy snacks increases, we think these early adopters will recommend the product to consumers helping the brand grow.Furthermore, with the discovery of acrylamide, a possible carcinogen, in baked and fried carbohydrates cooked at high temperatures, including many of the existing potato chips on the market, we have an advantage over many of our competitors as our product is not cooked at high enough temperatures to produce acrylamide. Hardbite Chips also uses unique ingredients such as Himalayan salt which provides more nutrients while keeping sodium levels low. This can be particularly appealing to health conscious consumers, especially to those with high blood pressure. Another unique selling proposition Hardbite Chips can use is to appeal to environmentally conscious consumers. Our company is committed to be an environmentally friendly company.Our potatoes and spices are supplied by local growers and our packaging is supplied by a local manufacturer. By highlighting these facts we believe we can convince environmentally conscious consumers that our company operates with similar values. As the â€Å"green† movement grows larger, we think we are situated to capture a large portion of this growing market. Another advertising appeal that we could use as a unique selling proposition is our unique flavours which may appeal to particular ethnic groups. While we attempt to make flavours that we think will appeal to everyone, we realize that certain ethnic groups may find some of our flavours appealing as they are familiar with them.For instance, our creamy coconut and curry flavoured chips may have a special appeal to Thai people as coconut milk is often added to curry in many Thai recipes. Although w e currently offer only a few unique flavours, it is our desire to develop more. By looking for inspiration in traditional ethnic foods we believe we can find flavours that appeal to Canada’s diverse ethnic communities as well as more traditional consumers of potato chips. Target Market In examining the potato chip market, we have decided to segment the market based on a psychographic segmentation. Our key considerations are the consumers’ motives, personality, lifestyle, and geodemographics.Since, there is normally just one person who does the grocery shopping for an entire family, most likely a parent, it is our desire to target this person. In particular, we are interested in targeting working parents who are raising children in an urban environment. In terms of personality and lifestyle we would segment these people by looking at the type and amount of activities they do. We are looking to target people who have full, active schedules and are looking for healthy foo d options but do not have time to compare products on their own. For motives, we are looking for parents that are concerned about providing healthy snacks their children will actually eat.By using geodemographics, we will be able to slightly modify our advertisements for certain ethnic neighbourhoods. We have chosen to target this segment because our product is capable of meeting their needs and should easily appeal to them. Also, as this segment purchases most of the food for their family, our product will be exposed to their children as well. This will help grow brand recognition and will help increase the sales of our product among other segments. The primary challenge we foresee in targeting this segment of the market is our ability to find an appropriate and effective media to communicate to them. These people balance work and family obligations which can take up a substantial amount of their time.For a convenience product such as snack food, these people may not pay attention to ads for different brands. Also, these people often have other things on their mind so they may be distracted when presented with our ads. Marketing Objectives and Issues Our objective is to increase consumer awareness of our product by 30% in the next year. Since our product is still fairly unknown and the company has been focussed on expanding production facilities, we believe now is a good time to increase promotional expenditures and raise awareness of our product. We are most concerned with increasing the awareness of our product benefits and decreasing customer resistance to buying our product.To measure the success of our objective, we will use monthly surveys to determine the approximate number of consumers aware of our product. When increasing awareness of our product, we wish to focus on the benefits that our product offers to consumers. These benefits would include the healthy aspects and quality of our potato chips. We believe consumers will perceive our all-natural, h and-cooked products as highly compatible with their lifestyles. Thus, as consumers become aware of our product, sales should increase. Also, by increasing awareness of our product we hope to decrease consumer resistance to buying our product. In recent years, potato chips have come under attack for contributing to obesity and related health problems.Additionally, carbohydrates cooked at high temperatures have been found to contain acrylamide, a possible carcinogen. Our product addresses these concerns and by informing consumers of this, we believe they will decide to choose our product over our competitors leading to an increase in our sales. In order to measure the effectiveness of our strategy, it is important to receive continuous feedback from consumers. Therefore we will survey consumers throughout the year to measure changes in awareness of our product and the change in the number of people buying our product. We will also ask consumers how they view our product compared to th ose offered by other snack food manufacturers and how they perceive our product in terms of health.Challenges in meeting our marketing objectives will include selecting an effective channel through which to educate consumers about our product. Also, as more companies are entering into the market we will be competing with them to make customers aware of our products. Another challenge that may present itself is the large companies in the industry may also become aware of our product and choose to emulate some characteristics of our product reducing our competitive advantage and making it harder to convince consumers are products are differentiated enough to be material. To overcome these challenges we will attempt to communicate with consumers as close as possible to the point of purchase.Our integrated marketing communication strategy will be the key to providing us the opportunity to meet our marketing objectives. Marketing Research Our research thus far has only included secondary sources of information. However, this information has given us a basic understanding of the market, changes occurring in the market, and our competitors in the industry. Statistics Canada has provided us with detailed information on the total sales of snack food in Canada as well as how large a portion potato chips make up of these sales. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and the USDA’s Foreign Agriculture Services have helped us to determine where the majority of snack foods are purchased by consumers in Canada.Industry Canada and Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada have also supplied us with detailed information about the size of the industry as well as general performance information for the industry. Despite the high cost of primary data, it is our belief that it would benefit the company to conduct such research. This would allow us to better define the exact size and distribution of our target market, the growth of this segment, and the rate at which this segment’s beliefs and attitudes are changing. Primary data will also allow us to develop new flavours that are customers would enjoy. To gather this information we would recommend the company use internet surveys with screened internet samples and to design the questionnaire to provide data on all of these areas so as to keep costs as minimal as possible.We have chosen screened internet samples because they can provide real-time reports and can be personalized for individual respondents. Also, since the segment we have chosen to target is quite active and busy, internet sampling will allow us to reach these consumers and hopefully receive a high rate of responses. Additionally, primary data is needed to assess the company’s ability to meet the marketing objectives. For this we would recommend the company conduct internet surveys with recruited internet samples each month. This will allow us to determine the effectiveness of our promotions. We have included a sample survey that the comp any may use for this purpose (see Appendix I). We have chosen the internet sample method because of its relatively low cost.However, as the company grows, we would recommend the use of focus groups to help develop and test new flavours of chips and to help determine the most effective way of promoting the product to our target market. Although they are more expensive, focus groups allow us to get more detailed information from consumers which we can then use to better serve our customers. Product Strategy Potato chips are at the maturity stage in the product life cycle. Many of our competitors have been in the business longer than us and have established a hold over some share of the market. Many new entrants to the industry, including Hardbite Chips, target niche markets that have been underserved by larger, more established companies. Our product is aimed at satisfying the needs of health conscious consumers.To meet these needs, our product provides consumers with many healthy fea tures not included with other potato chips. By making our potato chips trans-fat and cholesterol free we provide a product that consumers can snack on without having to worry about high cholesterol and its detrimental effects on health. We also use Himalayan salt instead of table salt on our potato chips. Himalayan salt provides â€Å"84 minerals in the same ratio as healthy blood plasma† and is a lower sodium alternative to table salt. 6 We believe this will be particularly appealing to health conscious consumers, especially those with high blood pressure. Another health benefit our potato chips have over those of most others potato chips, is our unique cooking process.During this process, temperatures do not get high enough to create acrylamide in our potato chips. Since acrylamide is has been found to be a possible carcinogen, we believe customers will see this as a significant benefit. Our product is augmented by offering our potato chips in different and unique flavours. Also, information about the healthy qualities of our product can be found on the packaging. We would like to further augment the product by increasing the number of flavours available and providing a guarantee of consumer satisfaction with our product. Our long term goal is to position the Hardbite Chips as a top quality brand in the minds of consumers. Pricing StrategyOur pricing objective is satisfactory profits. This will enable us to compete with our competitors and continue to grow our production levels. Our competitors in the industry are numerous and many have developed economies of scale giving them the advantage of lower costs. Therefore, to achieve our objective we want to position our product at a slightly higher price than our competitors. We want to utilize the assumption of uncertain consumers that price and quality are related. However, we must be careful not to price our product to high as the market for potato chips is elastic. It is important that the company has enough sales to cover our fixed costs and provide satisfactory profits.As we our selling a product in the maturity stage of the product lifestyle, the distribution channels we use is important to the company. Thus, it is important that we price our product at a level that appeals to wholesalers and retailers. Our pricing strategy is to focus on the market for healthy and high quality potato chips. We believe this will allow us to price our product at a price slightly above our competitors. In order to encourage customers to try our product we will offer coupons. This will allow us stimulate demand by offering a lower price temporarily. We can then discontinue the rebate once people are aware of our product. Distribution StrategyHardbite Chips currently distributes the potato chips it produces through numerous distributors. This strategy has helped the brand grow from being sold in mainly in health stores to being sold on many campuses across BC in addition to well known stores such as London Drugs, Shoppers Drug Mart, Overwaitea, and IGA Marketplace locations. This has allowed the company to increase demand for its products without having its own sales force. Given the proportion of snack food sales in retail grocery stores, we believe it is important that we communicate directly to these retailers to encourage them to carry our brand. We also think selling our product in convenience tores will help increase brand awareness. Retailers that we feel would immensely help increase our sales include Safeway, The Real Canadian Superstore, and 7-11. Getting our product sold in vending machines would also help increase brand awareness. Despite a provincial ban on the sales of junk food in elementary and high schools, vending machines are found in many high traffic areas. As our packaging has information on the health benefits of our product, health conscious consumers may be more inclined to buy our product given the alternatives. IMC Strategy Our primary communicatio n objective is to convince consumers our product is a healthy choice for their snacking needs.We would also like to communicate our commitment to the environment and our community. We feel that these messages can complement each other and work to position the company as caring and responsible in the minds of consumers. Given the size of our company and the limited amount of funds we have for promotion, we cannot afford to spend the amount we would like to on advertising. Thus, to reach our target market, we think we should advertise in magazines devoted to healthy lifestyles. The reason we have chosen magazines is they are a relativity low cost advertising option, they have a long advertising life and they have a high pass-along rate.We believe public relations may be the most cost effective way to increase customer awareness of our product. Sponsoring community activities, like a community garden, and co-sponsoring events like eco-challenge, which receives national television cover age, will help establish us as a health conscious and environmentally friendly company. Sponsoring activities like this will also likely result in positive media coverage for the company. This media coverage will inform consumers of our product that we were unable to reach through our advertising. Sales promotion provides many appealing options and offers the easiest way to reach our target market. For these reason it will be the largest portion of our target segment.Since potato chips are a convenience product, consumers spend a little time deciding which product to buy and they are not likely to remember advertising for a particular potato chip brand. Therefore, a point of purchase display may significantly help sway a consumer in favour of our product. This allows us to be the last promotional item they see before they make their purchase. Providing samples is another sale promotion technique that we think would work well for our product. By being able to sample our product befor e purchasing it, consumers will be less put off by our slightly higher price. As we discussed in our pricing strategy, we would also like to use coupons to entice customers to buy our product. By temporarily reducing our price we believe many more consumers will be willing to try our product.As we discussed in our distribution strategy, we would like to use personal selling to encourage more retailers to carry our product. By doing this together with our other promotional elements we hope to create an effective mix of push and pull strategies that will convince more retailers to carry our product. As the company grows and more funds can be spent on promotional activities we would like to increase the amount of advertising done. We would like to use different forms of media to reach our target market. Also, as consumer awareness of our brand grows and we increase our product offerings, we would like to expand our target market and create slightly different marketing campaigns to targ et certain ethnic groups. ConclusionDespite heavy competition in the snack food industry we think Hardbite Chips can produce satisfactory profits and continue to grow. Given that potato chips are in the maturity stage of the product life cycle, increasing the number of retailers that sell our product is an important part of our strategy. By increasing the number of retailers who sell our product, we will make it easier for our target market to purchase our product. We believe by increasing awareness of our product we can capture a large portion of health conscious consumers. By using our promotion mix to inform consumers of the benefits and features of our product, we can convince members of our target market segment that our brand is of high quality.Although our price is slightly higher than most of our competitors, we believe consumers will perceive our product as worth the extra cost. Appendix I Sample Survey |1. List all brands of potato chips that you are aware of. | |_________ _____________________________________________________________________ | |______________________________________________________________________________ | |______________________________________________________________________________ | |2.Are you aware of the brand Hardbite Chips? (if your answer is no, skip to question 4) | |Yes ___ No___ | |3. What product features of Hardbite Chips are you aware of? | |______________________________________________________________________________ | |______________________________________________________________________________ | |4. On average, how often do you buy potato chips? |More than once a week ___ | |Once a week___ | |Once a month___ | |Once every 2-3 months___ | Endnotes 1. Statistics Canada, Canada Food Stats: Analysis, http://www. statcan. gc. ca/ads-annonces/23f0001x/hl-fs-eng. htm 2. L. B. C. Consulting, Canada: Market Development Reports: Snack Food Market in Canada, Global Agriculture Information Network Report, United States D epartment of Agriculture (Ottawa, Canada: Foreign Agriculture Services, 2003), 6. http://www. fas. usda. gov/gainfiles/200301/145785163. pdf 3. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Retail Sales in Canadian Grocery Stores, 2007, http://www. ats-sea. agr. gc. ca/can/4714-eng. htmAgriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Retail Sales in Canadian Grocery Stores, 2006, http://www. ats-sea. agr. gc. ca/can/4715-eng. htm 4. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Canada's Snack Food Industry, http://ats-sea. agr. gc. ca/supply/3320_e. htm 5. The Province, â€Å"From pasta to potato chips,† May 21, 2006, Canadian Newstand, ProQuest 6. Sarah Merson, â€Å"SALT — THE PROS AND THE CONS,† Foods Matter (UK), March 2009, 9, EBSCOhost Bibliography Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Canada's Snack Food Industry. http://ats-sea. agr. gc. ca/supply/3320_e. htm. Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Retail Sales in Canadian Grocery Stores, 2006. http://www. ats-sea. agr. gc. ca/can/4715-eng. htm.

Sunday, January 5, 2020

Taken Review - 1262 Words

Movie Review #2 ___________________ A Paper Presented to Dr. Scott Hawkins Liberty Baptist Theological Seminary ___________________ In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Course PACO 604 Crisis Counseling ___________________ by Michael Bruce Plont November 18, 2009 Nature of the Crisis The movie that I chose to review is entitled â€Å"Taken†, which stars actor Liam Neeson as he plays the part of Bryan Mills. The â€Å"crisis† of the movie is that Mills’ daughter is abducted, drugged, and sold into sexual slavery. Mills, who is a former government operative, begins the longest 96 hours of his life, as he hunts for the gruesome organization that has taken his daughter Kim. Mills†¦show more content†¦Before he electrocutes the last abductor, Mills finds out that Amanda has died from being shot up with drugs, and his daughter is about to be sold, as a virgin, for $500,000.00. Mills then tracks down his daughter’s buyers, kills them, and then fulfills the promise he made during the abduction to rescue Kim. Mills then returns Kim to her mother and step-father in the United States. Steps for Alleviating the Crisis Mills remained surprisingly calm and focused throughout the ordeal. This was most likely do to the training and background that he came from. Given the fact that Mills learned from his contacts, that these abductors are able to make these girls disappear within 96 hours, he moved very quickly. I would have recommended that Mills get the local police involved, but in reality he was much more qualified to work this particular crime. Mills did attempt to illicit the help of his old government contacts while in Paris, only to find out that they were involved in the girl smuggling. Mills was able to quickly refocus his attention from an intense fear to a passionate search, due to the fact that he was trained to handle stress. I would have recommended that Mills take one of his close friends/colleagues, from the U.S., with him, as he could have greatly benefited from the colleagues’ support during those trying times. Instead, Mills worked completely alone. I would have also recommended that MillsShow MoreRelatedEssay on Review and Analysis of the Movie Taken785 Words   |  4 Pagesdescribe the movie Taken. If you desire a high dose of adrenaline to quench your movie watching thirst, and if you are ready to take a super-charged ride to the action filled city of Paris, France, then this is a must see movie for you. Taken, not for the faint of heart, will keep you on the edge of your seat for the entire ninety-one minutes. Be prepared to have the popcorn container pried from your hand when the credits start to roll on this high energy thriller. Taken premiered in FranceRead MoreMovie Review : Taken 1143 Words   |  5 PagesThe movie I chose to analyze for my assignment is ‘Taken’. 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