Wednesday, October 30, 2019

Comparison of International Marketing Strategies Dissertation

Comparison of International Marketing Strategies - Dissertation Example The company associates itself only with those who have the capability to deliver effective services in the cost-effective fashion. Nestle tries to put forward the benefits of nutrition and therefore the marketing strategies are based on demographics which present the transformation in standards of living. Both Nestle and Unilever tend to focus on the health and wellness. Unilever focuses on the actual needs of the consumers but Nestle spotlights the corporate wellness unit to offer valued food to all the consumers. It can be said that Nestle sheds more light on the ingredients of the products rather than targeting the consumers. The corporate wellness group of Nestle deals with the promotion of nutrition value across the globe. The strategy is to provide the consumers tasty foods with high nutritional value. Unilever sticks to the company profile and often take the action of eliminating products from the market if it does not do well but such actions are hard to find in Nestle. Nestl e involves in creating and enhancing the products of the company. The packaging systems followed by Nestle shares huge impact on the marketing. They offer user-friendly packaging techniques which keep the food preserved as well as make the package attractive. The â€Å"Nestle Nutritional compass† is labeled on each product which presents the nutritional value of the products. It shows the benefit of purchasing the product to the consumers (Shaw, and Onkvisit, 2009). It believes that only nutritional information is necessary but not sufficient. The compass consists of three elements- â€Å"Good to know†, â€Å"good to remember† and â€Å"good to talk†. The marketing strategies of Unilever varied only in the three year period of the 1950s to 1980s. During this period the company engaged itself on technological advancements, development of new products, targeting new global markets and maintained the quality of the products according to world’s standa rds.   

Monday, October 28, 2019

Emotional, Moral and Physical Changes Essay Example for Free

Emotional, Moral and Physical Changes Essay Adolescence is the name given to the period in the life of human beings between the ages of twelve and eighteen years. It is during the period of adolescence that a human being matures from a child to an adult, usually in both the physical as well as psychological sense of the word. That being said, it follows that this is the time in one’s life when one goes through the most numerous and major changes in terms of cognitive, social, physical, emotional and moral development (Turning Points). This article deals with explaining these changes along with relevant examples as well as enumerating options as to and what might be done within an out-of-school care program to accommodate those changes. Adolescence plays a major role in shaping the future of individuals as the decisions and choices that they make while steering through this phase in life are critical in shaping the people that they become in the future (Turning Points). This leads to the conclusion that this developmental stage is the most critical to the development of the individual going through it as well as the larger society that he or she is a part of. Subsequently, growing adolescents have unique learning needs as each person is different and unique from the other, not only in terms of physical appearance such as their face or body but also in terms of their psychological personality. Each person has different strengths, weaknesses, abilities, disabilities, talents and learning potential which needs due attention, especially during this growing stage. The academic years of adolescence are centered on middle school and thus middle schools should ideally be required to provide a secure and compassionate environment so as to develop the talents and strengths of, teach optimal usage of weaknesses and value each individual adolescent that they work for. In the following paragraphs, we will proceed to analyze the changes that adolescents go through. It is critical to note that all adolescents do not grow or learn at the same rate, neither physically nor psychologically. Due to irregular hormonal, body and mental growth, they become â€Å"vulnerable and self-conscious, and often experience unpredictable mood swings† (Turning Points). These changes also affect the way they perceive their surroundings, making them sensitive to and conscious of the implications of their actions to the world at large. Cognitive changes occur at varying rates among adolescents and they usually begin to develop the ability of carrying out abstract thought processes as opposed to only concrete ones as is the usual case n the pre-adolescence years. More important to realize is the fact that this cognitive progression is neither predictable nor dominated by any sense of orderliness. The social aspect of development during adolescence is generally headed by the premise that individuals seek social acceptance from their peers, who assume the role of strong influencers during the years of adolescence. This, combined with the fact that young adolescents become increasingly aware of their bodies and physical appearance make it even more difficult for them to face the changes within themselves and those that they perceive in the world around them. Emotionally, the young adolescent is challenged by the changes he or she is going through making the simplest of daily life occurrences the most challenging of circumstances. On top of this, adolescents become susceptible to taking bold initiatives on grounds of morality as they begin to feel a heightened sense of compassion and concern for the their surrounding environments. The following table present examples of changes in each of the areas outlined above pre-pubescent and pubescent adolescents along with out-of-school steps that could be taken to care for their developmental needs. Problems of Pre-Pubescent Adolescent Learners Area of Change Example Out-of-School Care Cognitive Change A Caucasian pre-pubescent girl begins to question her acquaintances’ prejudice against African Americans Encouraging cross racial relationships and respecting diversity through mentors. Social Change A boy is mentally disturbed about being shorter in height then his class mates. Parents are encouraged to have discussions with the boy about his concern and teach him to look beyond physical appearances, both in himself and in others around him. Emotional Change An adolescent has lately taken to slamming doors after arguments with his parents which have become a usual occurrence at home. Workshops are arranged for parents to handle the emotional changes in their child, where parents share and learn from each others’ experiences. Moral Change A Christian girl is contemplating running away from home in protest against her parents’ prejudice against her Muslim best friend. A mentor is assigned to each adolescent who acts as confidante , predicts the coming problem and deals with the mater accordingly Physical Change A girl becomes aware of her changing body and starts avoiding going out. Mentors and parents are encouraged to take their charges out, have open discussions and take them shopping for their changing needs. Problems of Pubescent Adolescent Learners Area of Change Example Out-of-School Care Cognitive Change As opposed to her parents’ objections, a pubescent girl feels that there is nothing wrong with having affectionate feelings for a boy. Mentors explain to young girls that parents are only human and bound to be unreasonable and that they should consider that teenage crushes are not true love. Social Change A girl starts making friends with teenagers much older then her, whose habits include drug and alcohol abuse. Workshops are arranged for parents to handle the emotional changes in their child, where parents share and learn from each others’ experiences. Parents would then realize that the girl feels misunderstood and is trying to fit in and become acceptable to her peers. Emotional Change A boy starts feeling that he is not wanted by anyone and starts avoiding company. Parents are encouraged to have discussions with the boy about his concern and teach him to look beyond physical appearances, both in himself and in others around him. Moral Change A girl takes up smoking under the premise of that she be allowed to make and learn from her own mistakes. Mentors help in making the girl realize that there are more effective ways to channelize the strength of her morals and discuss relevant examples. Physical Change A girl is aware that she needs certain garments but is too embarrassed to purchase them on her own. Mentors and parents are encouraged to take their charges out, have open discussions, take them shopping for their changing needs and volunteer to shop for things they are uncomfortable to buy themselves until they learn that they have nothing to be ashamed of. Bibliography Turning Points, Transforming Middle Schools: At the Turning Point, the Young Adolescent Learner. Retrieved January 16, 2007, from http://www. turningpts. org/pdf/YALGuide2. pdf

Saturday, October 26, 2019

Banning Cars Essay -- Papers benefits pros cons Essays Vehicle

Banning Cars There are always two sides of the story. In this essay I am going show the good points and the bad points about banning cars. Many things have to be considered before a change of this magnitude can happen. I will also express my own opinion to show what a person of the public would think of the change. ====================================================================== The good points weigh out the bad points by a long way. One big reason for this is pollution and the environment. The environment has been effected by cars and their pollution from the time cars were invented. The pollution that comes from cars is made up of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, and many other poisonous gases. This kills plants and animals and destroys the ozone layer. The pollution forms a layer in the atmosphere which, keeps the heat in causing global warming and is dangerous to the earth. If cars were banned the demand for petrol would be no where near as much as before. This would mean not as much oil would ...

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Lakeside Essay

Discussion Questions 1. The owners of Lakeside as well as the company’s bank may require that an independent CPA firm perform an annual audit because the CPA firm could have an independence issue. The CPA firm in that Lakeside wants to hire is also the auditors for Lakesides main financial bank. The bank is a â€Å"main† user of the report put out by Lakesides auditor and in this case would be that banks auditor too. The connection is too close for the CPA firm to pick up this client, it would be against the ethically code. 2. Abernethy and Chapman do not have in-depth understanding of the consumer electronics industry that Lakeside is a part of, therefore it would be an unethical and against the rules of conduct. Rule 201 in General Standards part 1 says, â€Å"undertake only those professional services that the member can reasonably expect to complete with professional competence†. As stated if the firm does not have a member or experience in the field of business the auditing firm should refrain from taking on that client. Could an auditing firm get by in auditing the books of an electronic company when their specialty is car dealerships, probably but as an auditing firm that has never done the audits for a client in this field it is unknown the way business is handled and the right protocol in that field. There is an ethical obligation for the firm to discuss the expertise needed for them about the industry the client is in. 3. Profit-sharing bonuses seem like an easy and nice incentive for the employee by the employer but they bring along a lot of drawbacks and as an auditing firm open up a door for a red flag. There are very strict rules when adopting a profit-share policy that must be approved by the IRS and meet their guidelines. There is also a limit to the amount that employers can contribute to the plans. These guidelines are changing from year to year  and it would be something else Abernethy and Chapman would have to keep up on as well as make sure Rogers is doing the right thing. There is a lot of area for fraud here and as an auditing firm a section that would need to be under close watch. 4. If Rogers wanted Abernethy and Chapman to assist them in developing systems it would depend on a few factors. Abernethy and Chapman would be able to help develop the systems if Lakeside stays a private company. If Lakeside is a publicly traded company Abernethy and Chapman would have an independence issue if it was both the auditor and helping to develop systems for output. 5. If Andrews was assigned to visit the headquarters/warehouse some of the things a tour of the client’s facilities is helpful in obtaining a better understanding of the client’s business operations because operations because it provides an opportunity to observe operations firsthand and to meet key personnel. By viewing the facility you can view assets and interpret accounting data related such as inventory and some of the factory equipment. 6. There are a few reasons that Lakeside would not want to hire a CPA firm that has clients in the electronics industry, one of them being if Lakeside would not get as good of a report as the other electronics, it is very each for stakeholders and investors to see which company is better. Second, Lakeside may feel the auditor isn’t necessarily on their side, even though as an auditor we need to stay neutral and that our obligation is to the stakeholder in the company. List the fraud risk factors that the CPA firm might encounter if they accept this audit engagement. Be sure to include a discussion of all items that will probably require special attention during the audit. For each of these fraud risk factors, indicate how the auditor should follow up on each potential problem if the engagement is accepted. Use the following formal Fraud Risk Factors Auditor Follow Up Material misstatement that existed on reporting historical cost on the new building. Approach this subject right away and speaking with the previous auditors for what they experienced on this issue. Rogers Corporation to construct the latest facility for Lakeside This issue needs more information and legal terms on whether or not this is allowable. The audit option that was rendered on the books for year ending in 2011 With Rogers refusing to write down the reported value of the property can cause some confliction between any auditor and owner. Talking to Rogers and the previous auditor is the best way to get to the bottom of this issue and see who is at fault. Not as much of a fraud but Rogers growth plan could run the company into the ground Because Rogers was annoyed with the last firm because of stifle to his growth plans, as an auditing firm we need to figure out what is best for the company and determine whether his attitude towards not changing his growth plan would be an issu e. Why does more capital from being a publicly traded company help the company out There is nothing in the description that would give us as the firm an indication that having more capital will improve the position of the company. Growing and building more stores does not fix the problem. Coming to a determination on stock options will be crucial before taking this client on. The threat of closing the newer building near the strip mall. This brings up the factor that if the company is close to closing a store before they are even our client, their future looks slim. If this is the case do we want to have a audit report of â€Å"we think this business will fail in a few years† That’s not good business all around Rogers uncertainty about surroundings The fact that there were two electronic businesses that went out of business in the same town as him and he didn’t know the reason, makes me a little worried if he isn’t going to pay attention to his surrounds like this. I would approach this subject with our partners and Rogers before taking on this client. Does auditing them and also being the auditor of the bank they finance through become an independence problem? There would be an independence issue here that would need to either be resolved or conclude in not being able to have Lakeside as a client Abernethy and Chapman’s inexperience in the field of electronics Abernethy and Chapman should discuss with Lakeside their inexperience and explain to them how they plan on gaining experience Profit-Sharing Bonuses Profit-Sharing bonuses bring up a huge fraud risk and Abernethy and Chapman need to make sure they deal with this issue and either get Rogers to cut the plan or work out in great detail how it will work. King and Company Certified Public Accountants Richmond, Virginia INDEPENENT AUDITOR’S REPORT To the Stockholders Lakeside Company We have audited the financial statements of Lakeside Company as of December 31, 2011 and also have observed the operations and internal controls of Lakeside. Management’s Responsibility for the Financial Statements Management is responsible for the preparation and fair presentation of the financial statements in compliance with U.S. GAAP. This includes the design, implementation, and maintenance of internal control pertaining to the preparation and fair presentation of financial statements that are free from material misstatement whether due to fraud or error. Auditor’s Responsibility Our responsibility is to give an opinion on Lakeside’s financial statements based on our audits. We must conduct audits in accordance with auditing standards generally accepted. Those standards require that we plan and perform audits to reasonable obtain sufficient evidence that gives us the best assurance about whether the financial statements are free from material misstatement. An audit involves performing procedures to obtain audit evidence about the amounts and disclosures in the financial statements. All these procedures depend on the auditor’s judgment. We believe that the audit evidence we have obtained is sufficient and appropriate to provide a basis for our opinion. Lakeside Company has chosen not to value their latest store with accordance to guidelines established by the FASB. We strongly believe that the value of Lakeside’s $186,000 investment in their sixth store should be impaired. The continuing failure of the shopping center makes the fate of the Lakeside store appear uncertain to us. The president of Lakeside, Benjamin Rogers, continued to report this asset based on historical cost, and not fair value. Because of this, we feel that a material misstatement exists and thus, we issued a qualified opinion. Opinion In our opinion, except for the material misstatement with this investment, as mentioned in the preceding paragraph, the financial statements of Lakeside Company appear to be fairly stated with accordance to GAAP. Lakeside’s operations and cash flows seem to be in conformity with GAAP for the year ended December 31, 2011.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Type of International Strategy

Lufthansa is one of the three airline companies world-wide, whose debt is rated as investment-grade. Since the World War II the industry has never earned its cost of capital over the business cycle and after the deregulation which increasing replaced the government-organized IATA cartel the situation got worse. The airline’s response to that and to globalization was to form alliances. Lufthansa join to the Star Alliance, and is the leading probably pivotal member of the largest alliance. Alliances are even more complex to manage than individual companies because they lack the hierarchical conflict resolutions mechanisms that individual companies can employ. The globalization of the airline industry move full speed ahead, and Lufthansa since the early 1980s have a global expansion strategy, but was not economically viable as we can see into the fowling exhibits. The fixed cost were too high, and on the other hand, strong reasons supported the belief that the â€Å"network effect† and economies of scale were leading to a global airline industry, dominated buy the key players. But the deregulation process had not gone far enough to allow major mergers. Deregulation and the erosion of the IATA cartel went far enough to allow sources of new competitors, low cost airlines spread from the United States, to Europe and Asia. Using this new opens in the market Lufthansa grow and expand was we can see in the exhibits

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

8 Tips for How (and When) to Ask for a Raise

8 Tips for How (and When) to Ask for a Raise SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Are you hoping to increase your salary but aren't sure how to ask for a raise? Are you also wondering how much to ask for a raise or when to ask for a raise?Asking for a raise can be nerve-wracking, especially if you aren’t sure how to go about it, but we have all the answers you're looking for. In this guide, we explain everything you need to know about asking for a raise, including the steps you need to have done beforehand, the best times to ask for a raise, how much you should ask for, and eight tips to keep in mind when you ask. Things to Keep in Mind Before Asking for a Raise Before you even suggest having a conversation with your boss about your salary, there’s work you need to do. Don’t ask for a raise until you do the following four things. Ask Yourself If You’ve Truly Earned a Raise Everyone wants to make more money, but have you really put in enough work for your boss to justify increasing your salary, especially if you’re asking for more than just a cost of living increase?If you haven’t been expanding your responsibilities and going above and beyond what you’re asked to do, convincing your boss to give you a raise will be a much harder sell. Do Your Research Before you ask for a raise, you need to know how your salary compares to the salaries of similar jobs in your area. This will help you come up with a proper amount to ask for as a raise, and if you can show your salary is below the market average. We discuss this more in the â€Å"How Much of a Raise Should You Ask For† section. Have a â€Å"Brag List† Ready In order to get a raise, you’ll need to show how valuable you are to the company so they agree that you’re worth paying more money. The best way to do this is to have a â€Å"brag sheet† that highlights your accomplishments. These should be as specific as possible and ideally include quantifiable numbers. Saying, â€Å"I brought on five new clients and increased monthly sales by 15%† is much more effective than saying, â€Å"I was a great employee,† or something similarly vague. Remember That Asking for a Raise Isn’t Rude or Unusual Many employees worry that asking for a raise will make them look greedy or rude, but this isn’t the case. Asking for a raise is a normal part of having a job, and most employers expect you to ask for a raise occasionally. When to Ask for a Raise Timing is everything, and it can be the deciding factor in whether you get a raise or not. There are certain times when you’re more likely to get a raise, three of which we discuss below. During an Annual Performance Review If your company does annual performance reviews, these are a great, and often expected, time to ask for a raise.Since you’ll be discussing your accomplishments and goals for the future, discussing a change in salary fits right into the conversation. After Doing Excellent Work If you’ve just done an outstanding job on a project or gone above-and-beyond your typical work duties, consider asking for a raise.Your accomplishments will be in the forefront of your supervisor’s mind, and you’ll have concrete evidence of how useful you are to the company. When Your Supervisor Is in a Positive Frame of Mind Even if you’re the #1 employee at your office, you’ll hurt your chances of actually getting a raise if you ask when your boss is overwhelmed with work, had a project of their own go poorly, or is dealing with other issues that are distracting. Wait until things are going well for both you and your supervisor before broaching the possibility of a raise. In all cases, you should wait until it has been at least six months to a year since you either got a new role or received a raise. You should also you only discuss a potential raise when you’re meeting one-on-one with your supervisor, during a time when you both have time for the conversation. This isn't a talk you want to start while passing each other in the hall! How Much of a Raise Should You Ask For? Before you ask for a raise, you should always know what amount you’re hoping to get, whether this is a 3% increase in salary, an extra $2000 a year, etc.You don’t need to state this amount right when you ask for the raise, but you should expect your supervisor to ask what you’re hoping to get. Having a concrete amount you’d like your raise to be will make you seem more prepared and serious, and it’ll make it easier to start negotiations with your supervisor. It also reduces the possibility of your supervisor giving you a very small raise since no amount was specified. There’s no set amount you should ask for when you request a raise. This is another area where you’ll need to do your research. Most annual raises are between 1% and 5% of your annual salary, with 3% being the average at many companies.Ask around to figure out what other people in similar positions are making. You can also look on sites like Glassdoor and the Federal Bureau of Labor Statistics to find what others in your field are making. Set your expectations around those amounts. Also, don’t start off by requesting a ridiculously large raise thinking you and your supervisor will then negotiate it down to something more reasonable. Doing that makes you look entitled. When asked what your desired raise is, state the amount you’re happy with, and be prepared to back it up with research that shows you deserve this amount (this can include printing out stats of the salaries of similar workers). 8 Tips on How to Ask for a Raise Once you get to the point where you and your boss are ready to have the conversation about your salary, keep these eight tips in mind when discussing a raise. #1: Be Confident Asking for a raise can be intimidating, but try to minimize your nervousness during the conversation. By being confident, you’ll show your boss that you’re serious about this topic and really believe you deserve a raise. If you aren’t confident you deserve a raise, why should your boss be? Many people find that practicing their speech in front of a mirror or other people several times can make the actual conversation go much smoother. #2: Make It Clear You’re Asking for a Raise This isn’t a time to be coy about what you’re asking for; doing so will just make the conversation confusing and awkward.If you haven’t already told your supervisor why you’re requesting a meeting, you should begin the conversation with something like, â€Å"I’ve learned a lot from [company name], and I feel I’ve also been a strong asset. Because of this, I’d like to set up an appointment to discuss my salary.† This removes any ambiguity from the conversation and makes it easier for you and your supervisor to communicate honestly with each other. #3: Show That You’re Valuable This is the time to bring up the topics you came up with in your brag sheet. You don’t need to list everything you’ve done for the company, but by highlighting a few major accomplishments and making it clear they’re part of a pattern of excellent work, you’ll remind your boss how valuable you are. Remember to make these accomplishments detailed and to include numbers when you can to give concrete evidence of your worth. Good examples include, â€Å"Revenue increased $10,000 since I began working the project,† â€Å"Employee turnover has decreased by half and employee satisfaction has increased by 20% since I became manager of this team.† If you’ve found solid evidence that your salary is significantly below average for your field, you can also bring this up now, but be careful not to sound accusing or bitter.Something like, â€Å"Here’s data I collected showing salaries for people in similar positions as mine. Because of my accomplishments, I believe I deserve to be making at or above the average salary for this position† makes it clear what you want without being negative. #4: Talk About Your Long-Term Goals In order to show you’re serious about your commitment to your job and will continue to be an exceptional employee, make sure you discuss accomplishments you hope to achieve in the future in your position or a future position. #5: Don’t Bring Up Personal Problems Even if you really need the money, this is not the time to mention that getting a raise will really help you recover from a bad investment, pay for your kid’s college, etc.Bringing up your personal problems during this talk isn’t professional will only make your supervisor feel more uncomfortable if they need to decline your request. This is also not the time to bring up workplace grievances like the fact that you feel you’re working a ton of hours or do twice as much work as another employee.Keep your discussion about getting a raise strictly professional, and only bring up work accomplishments as reasons why you deserve a raise. #6: Give Your Boss Time to Consider the Request Many times, even if your boss wants to give you a raise, they need to clear it with other people first. If your boss seems at least somewhat willing to consider giving you a raise, end your request by letting them know you aren’t expecting an answer right this minute, and ask when you can schedule a follow-up conversation.This takes some of the pressure off them to make a decision in the moment. #7: Consider Other Rewards If your boss is unable or unwilling to give you a raise, there are other rewards you could ask for, including: A bonus Increased vacation days More flexible working schedule Think about what other incentives you’d also be interested in having, and be prepared to offer them instead if your boss can’t give you a raise but agrees you deserve some other type of reward for your work. #8: Don’t Be Discouraged If You Hear â€Å"No† Not everyone who asks for a raise gets one. Sometimes you haven’t been in the position long enough, haven’t distinguished yourself enough, or the company just doesn’t have the money to offer you a raise right now. If this conversation doesn’t lead to a raise, a good follow-up question is, â€Å"What would I need to do to earn a raise in the future?†This will give you and your supervisor chance to discuss concrete actions you can take to put you in a better position to get a raise in the future. If your supervisor can’t offer you any definite steps you can take to get a raise, or they state that you’re already at the high end of the salary range for your position, then you may need to start looking at a job in a new company in order to increase your salary. Summary: How to Ask for a Raise at Work Before you ask for a raise, it’s important to make sure you’ve really earned a raise, have done your research on the salaries of similar workers, and have a brag list of your accomplishments ready. Not sure when to ask for a raise? The best times are during an annual review, after you’ve done excellent work, and when your boss is in a good mood.If you’re not sure how much to ask for a raise, do lots of research on what other people in your field make so you can be sure your request is reasonable. If you're not sure how to ask your boss for a raise, keep the following tips in mind: Be confident Make it clear you’re asking for a raise Show that you’re valuable Talk about your long-term goals Avoid discussing personal problems Give your boss time to think about it Consider other rewards Don’t be discouraged if you don’t get a raise What's Next? Interested in large numbers?Wondering what a Googol is? Learn every major number that comes after trillion in our guide to extremely large numbers. Thinking about learning Japanese?Learn how to say "good morning" in Japanese, plus nine other important greetings. Did you know that water has a very special density? Check out our guide to learn what the density of water is and how the density can change.

Monday, October 21, 2019

Self-Publishing vs Traditional Publishing Which Is Right For You

Self-Publishing vs Traditional Publishing Which Is Right For You Self-Publishing vs Traditional Publishing: Which one is right for you? By titling this post ‘Self-Publishing vs Traditional Publishing,’ we run the risk of suggesting that one approach is better than the other. Naturally, the traditional path to publishing is (with good reason) most alluring to writers who dream of book deals, newspaper reviews and the sight of their name on bestsellers lists. However, technology and reader behavior has changed significantly in the past decade. Self-publishing has not only become a viable alternative but, in the case of some authors, the preferred choice.In this post, we’ll go through the pros and cons of both publishing methods and help you decide which one is best for you as an author. Self-Publishing or Traditional Publishing. Which one's right for you? What’s the difference?If you need a bit of context, here’s the skinny. When we talk about traditional publishing, we’re referring to the system authors and publishers have used in almost every country for hundreds of years. In traditional publishing:Authors will ‘sell’ their book to a company, often with the help of an agent;The publisher will arrange for editing, production, distribution and marketing; andAuthors will receive a ‘royalty,’ percentage of the publisher’s cut. Do you have any questions or thoughts on this topic? Please share your comments in the box below.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

The 3 Sources of SAT Anxiety (and how to manage them)

The 3 Sources of SAT Anxiety (and how to manage them) SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Standardized testing is always stressful, but there are few tests more nerve-wracking than the SAT. See the main reasons why the test freaks students out and what to do about it. ACT and SAT anxiety and worry can be conquered, and we show you how. Problem #1: High Stakes This one’s obvious: the SAT makes people nervous because it counts for so much. High school seniors face some of the most stressful transitions in lifethe last chance to do so many high school things (go to prom, help take the tennis team to regionals), plus all the scariness of applying to schools, keeping GPAs up, facing life without parents. It’s a lot to handle, so it’s crazy to throw all your SAT prep on there as well, especially if you are prone to anxiety. Solution #1: Take it early, and more than once. For maximum anxiety-reducing results, take the SAT for the first time a year before you have toin 11th gradeor even in 10th. Think of it as a test run, but do some prep beforehand. Then take it again in 12th grade if you need to, and by that point, it’ll seem like no big deal. (Or, at least, like less of a big deal.) If you’re taking Trigonometry, Calculus, or even Algebra II, you’re not learning anything in school that will help with the SAT Math section; that stuff happened in 7th-9th grades. As for Reading and Writing, the SAT tests specific enough skills that it probably won’t overlap much with what you’re doing in English class. But most importantly, when you take it a year early, you’re far away from the urgency of college applications; thus, your anxiety will be minimized, and you also learn how the process works so you can be more relaxed if and when you take it again later in the year. Problem #2: Secrecy The ETS runs the test like an NSA operationyou can’t even use mechanical pencils for fear you’ll sneak cheat sheets in. The requirements of photo IDs and not touching any belongings during the test can make some students feel like they’re under suspicion of something. But it’s really just a result of Problem #1: because the stakes are so high, people will go to any lengths to cheat on the test; the photo ID requirement, for example, is in response to people sending others in their place to take the test for them. Solution #2: Understand the ETS and the context of the test. The SAT has been around for almost 100 years, and for most of that time it was a very imperfect indicator of college readiness that was overused. Its imperfection, and its role in American higher education, are the reasons for the prison-lockdown style security around the test today. Tests make some people desperate, and to keep it fair, the ETS feels they need to respond to cheaters’ new methods. But you’re not a cheater, and you’re going to be ready, so you can ignore all the weird secrecy stuff and just pretend you’re fulfilling a requirement for school. Problem #3: Fear of the Unknown The SAT was designed to test aptitude (although it no longer claims to do so) without students knowing what they were being tested on. This means that the question types and answer choices can be totally baffling if you’re unfamiliar with them. That’s why even the College Board offers free practice materials. Solution #3: Prepare! Of course we at PrepScholar feel strongly about the benefits of SAT prep, but there are certain benefits of it, and of PrepScholar’s program specifically, that are undeniable. The main one is that, even if you just take one Practice Test, you’re more familiar with the format and material than you would be otherwise. Taking it a notch further, PrepScholar breaks the test down into specific skills that the SAT is testing, which removes much of the mystery from the test itself. And no two students are alikeone might have trouble with circles problems, while another may be great at circles but baffled by long passages in the Reading section. Our program only gives you lessons in the areas you need to improveautomatically. For other ideas for reducing test anxiety, see our post Mindfulness and the SAT, and if all this advice is too late for you because you’re taking the test in 2 weeks, check out our SAT Prep Tips for Last Minute Studying and Cramming. If you found this article useful, please consider joining our email list at right. Your information will never be shared or sold.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Driving While Black Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Driving While Black - Essay Example Recent well-publicized miscarriages of justice have caused embarrassment to the police, government and judiciary, and increased public concern about the quality of police functions (Weitzer, 1999). Similar misgivings are also felt about the expense and operation of the civil law system. A federal lawsuit United States v. Weaver has given police more freedom for racial profiling. Although, it stipulates certain patterns and norms when "blackness" can be regarded as "a signal" for that could be legitimately relied upon in the decision to approach and ultimately detain the suspect" Kennedy, 1999). Taking into account facts presented by Weitzer (1999) and Harris (1987), it is possible to say that use of "Driving While Black" may be regarded as quite reasonable under certain circumstances. These researchers underline that the main crime patterns that are deemphasized include murders, sex offenders and gang activity. These crime patterns are influenced by behavior patterns of black offenders and could be reduced in all groups mentioned above. Also, police intervention activities are directed against gang activity and drug dealing as "driven forces" to criminal behavior typical for black population. To be effective police should employ different range of activities and cover different groups of potential offenders, and black people represents a big group of suspects. In any case, it is important to emphasize that "blackness" is not regarded as "a signal" of criminal behavior. Studies found that: "Residents of both the white and the black middle-class neighborhoods were less likely to perceive or experience police abuse in their... Taking into account facts presented by Weitzer (1999) and Harris (1987), it is possible to say that use of â€Å"Driving While Black† may be regarded as quite reasonable under certain circumstances. These researchers underline that the main crime patterns that are deemphasized include murders, sex offenders and gang activity. These crime patterns are influenced by behavior patterns of black offenders and could be reduced in all groups mentioned above. Also, police intervention activities are directed against gang activity and drug dealing as â€Å"driven forces† to criminal behavior typical for black population. To be effective police should employ different range of activities and cover different groups of potential offenders, and black people represents a big group of suspects. In any case, it is important to emphasize that â€Å"blackness† is not regarded as â€Å"a signal† of criminal behavior. Studies found that: â€Å"Residents of both the white and the black middle-class neighborhoods were less likely to perceive or experience police abuse in their neighborhoods than were residents of the black lower-class neighborhood† (Weitzer, 1999). These facts show that class location is more important for police then racial differences and it is impossible to say about â€Å"blackness† as the only cause for illegal stops. On the other hand, rights are particularly difficult to operationalize in legal politics if the object of these rights is to protect indigenous identity. Since rights language is usually attached to the idea that individuals should be protected.

Friday, October 18, 2019

Condition Monitoring Photovoltaic Energy Systems-based reliability Research Paper

Condition Monitoring Photovoltaic Energy Systems-based reliability - Research Paper Example Major PV Modules and Types Solar energy is considered as a major basis of renewable and sustainable power which can be effectively generated through the utilisation of the PV method. The PV system consists of constructing blocks which are also termed as modules or cells that are connected together and is able to transform ‘sunlight into electricity’. According to Chow, PV system generates low Green House Gas (GHG) emission and is also recognised as a clean basis of energy. PV system is developed by assimilating variety of semiconductor materials so as to generate power with high capacity. There are four major types of PV modules which are ‘crystalline silicon’, ‘polycrystalline’, ‘amorphous silicon module’ and ‘thin-film module’. Every PV modules have diverse efficiencies owing to which the overall performance of these PV modules tend to rely on the ingredients as well as the operating situations based on various factor s such as temperature, intensity of solar radioactivity and the inclusive design of the system. Furthermore, the orientation and location of PV array also creates a significant impact on the electricity production capacity through the usage of solar energy depending on the weather conditions. The four major types of PV modules, i.e. crystalline silicon, polycrystalline, amorphous silicon and thin film (Chow, â€Å"Modeling Urban Solar Energy with High Spatiotemporal Resolution†). As stated by Mangersnes, Crystalline PV modules are frequently specified as being the most reliable component of the PV system. This presumable reliability is demonstrated through its large warranty periods. Crystalline Silicon PV is the most extensively used PV technology. It is developed through solar cells made by ‘crystalline silicon’. This type of cells is equipped with high level of affectivity and thus is also regarded as an interesting technology. In general, there are two kinds of solar cells which are ‘mono-crystalline silicon’ and ‘multi-crystalline silicon’. Mono-crystalline silicon is developed by cutting wafers from high clarity single crystal lump. Similarly, the multi-crystalline silicon is developed by cutting a cast tablet of silicon into blocks and wafers. In general, mono-crystalline silicon cells have much higher effectiveness in comparison to multi-crystalline silicon solar cells. The crystal type module usually applied for this technology is iron glass which is combined with anti-reflective layer, to make sure that the maximum solar radioactivity spreads to the crystalline solar cells and thus the energy generating capacity can be enhanced (Mangersnes, â€Å"Back-contacted Back-junction Silicon Solar Cells†). Polycrystalline PV modules include small silicon glass pieces. Polycrystalline is generally used for developing gate constituents in semiconductor devices. Polycrystalline modules are most commonly used f or generating electricity, as it is considered to be quite inexpensive in comparison with other PV modules. The reason for polycrystalline modules to be inexpensive is owing to its production procedure. In the production process of polycrystalline, the melted silicon is dispensed into a cast rather than into one single crystal. The components of polycrystallin

Creation and evolution Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Creation and evolution - Research Paper Example This paper will compare and contrast the two ideologies illustrating their similarities and differences. In addition, the paper will base its creationism comparison on Christianity. Creationism refers to the belief and the ideology that humanity exists and there is a deity which varies among the difference in beliefs (Comet, 117). Followers of this ideology believe that there is a creator who is responsible for the creation of the world and all inhabitants and components such as animals, natural resources and humans. This ideology is solely on the basis of the particular religion one believes in and is considered as a concept of faith. According to the book of Genesis in the Bible, the world was created by God in a timeframe of 7days (Comet, 117). One difference that exists between the two concepts is that in creationism everything has a purpose. It was all created uniquely and ideally by a super natural being to fulfill this purpose (Crothers, 234-235). In addition, this belief also states that God created everything according to its kind, for example, rats only make rats, sharks only make sharks and humans only make humans (Comet, 117). In contrast to creationism which is believes in a fixed status and existence of a supernatural being, evolution theories are based on the spontaneity and metamorphosis of humans and other components of nature in order to be better adjusted to the changing environment (Crothers, 234-235). This has often been termed survival of the fittest, whereby the species better suited for certain environmental conditions survive, whilst those that do not die and are unable to pass their genotypes and phenotypes to the next generation. (Scott, 55-64). In essence, the theory of evolution is not based on faith and religion like creationism, but rather on development. Using the example mentioned above, could result in rats evolving into sharks (Comet, 117). The

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Problem Questions Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Problem Questions - Essay Example This is whereby more than one person have right of ownership of the same property regardless of the share of each person(s) in the property. However, each person has distinct rights of possession in the property from the other co-owners though they all have absolute right to the entire property. Under common tenancy, each of the co-owners has right to do what they wishes with their right of ownership to the property. Therefore, co-owners can pass their right to the possession of the property to their heirs if they so wish or can even sell their property any time they fill like. Under such situation, the third party who has inherited or has purchased the property from another person will acquire absolute right of co-ownership with the other existing co-owners. Under common tenancy, each co-owner has personal liability for payment of the property rates, maintenance fees and refurbishment cost. However, if one of the co-owners bears the entire refurbishment and maintenance charges, they have a right to claim for reimbursement from the other co-owners. ... He also paid for the repair of the house and for installation of a new kitchen as well as for electricity and gas bills from his own earnings. However, there was no agreement to show the form of relationship that existed in the ownership of the estate either at present or in the future. According to their agreement, the estate was written in the name of Amaryllis.3 They have continued to live in the same house since then. In my view, by the virtue of their conduct and mutual agreement to live together the two co-owners had entered in a common tenancy. Under this form of ownership, there was no distinction as to what proportion of the property each of the two owns. Both Amaryllis and Basil have equal access to the property and can do anything they wish with the property. However, the parties should be careful with their deeds in order to avoid infringing the rights of each party.4 Therefore, each of the party may use the property according to their wishes, but should not interfere wit h the right of the other party. Under common tenancy, each of the co-owner of the property has a right to sell or to transfer the right to another person.5 Under such a situation, the third party to whom the property has been transferred to acquire absolute light similar to that which was held by the previous owner. In the light of this information, it can be argued that in the situation where Amaryllis invited her cousin Cecily to live in the estate with her, Amaryllis agreed to share her right in the property with Basil, but Cecily had no so such right as long as Amaryllis was in the estate.6 Therefore, Cecily could only enjoy limited rights as a share of what Amaryllis enjoyed and should in no way appear to enjoy

Terrorism Today Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Terrorism Today - Research Paper Example According to the US Department of Defense terrorism is defined as an unlawful action that is intended to create a sense of fear or to intimidate governments and the general public in order to attain political, religious and ideological goals (The Face of Terrorism, 2007). Today's terrorist organizations work in groups which are in turn interlinked to form a wide terrorist network. Small groups of terrorist cells which are part of a larger group are trained and sent all over the world. In some cases, different terrorist networks or organizations work together to carry out an attack. All the networks work under a leader who instructs and decides on the activities of the terrorist network (Global Terrorism, n.d). Terrorists could be non state players with a transnational support such as the Al-Qaeda, cells which have regional or international links or individual independent terrorists who are not affiliated to any organization (The Face of Terrorism, 2007). Terrorism is a premeditated a ct and it is carried out based on political, religious or ideological motives. In most cases political authority, which determines the social and economic status of a country, are the major causes for a terrorist attack (Creekmore, 2007). The recent 9/11 attacks stand proof for the power of terrorist organizations to carry out an attack in a developed and super power country like America. The major objective behind the attacks was to expose the vulnerability of a country such as America and to create a sense of fear and chaos among the general public (The Face of Terrorism, 2007; Creekmore, 2007). The bombings not only targeted the public but also the US military forces. Minor losses of military forces by a terrorist attack will not only expose the vulnerability of the forces but would also result in wider media coverage and diminish the public and political support for military operations. Hence terrorist organizations do not directly challenge the government; instead they would ta rget the general population in a manner that would change their perception of the effectiveness and capabilities of their government. They also carry out their operations in a manner that would nullify the effect of the strength of the target forces as exemplified by the sudden attacks on 9/11 (The Face of Terrorism, 2007). Though the 9/11 attacks resulted in the loss of thousands of lives and property, if nuclear devices or bio warfare’s were used in the attacks the destruction could have been of a larger magnitude and would have definitely undermined the basic sense of security within the country (Carter, 1998). In addition to the loss of lives and damage to property such terrorist attacks have also have a negative impact on the economy of the country. The 9/11 attacks had a significant impact on the trading and stock markets with both the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) and NASDAQ closed for a week after the attacks. When the markets reopened the stock market index had fall en by 684 points and the stock loss was estimated at $1.2 trillion dollar for that week. Apart from companies in the US which suffered huge losses, companies across the world which traded with the US also lost significantly. The airline industry was the most effected after the attacks which have even resulted in many airline companies filing for

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Problem Questions Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Problem Questions - Essay Example This is whereby more than one person have right of ownership of the same property regardless of the share of each person(s) in the property. However, each person has distinct rights of possession in the property from the other co-owners though they all have absolute right to the entire property. Under common tenancy, each of the co-owners has right to do what they wishes with their right of ownership to the property. Therefore, co-owners can pass their right to the possession of the property to their heirs if they so wish or can even sell their property any time they fill like. Under such situation, the third party who has inherited or has purchased the property from another person will acquire absolute right of co-ownership with the other existing co-owners. Under common tenancy, each co-owner has personal liability for payment of the property rates, maintenance fees and refurbishment cost. However, if one of the co-owners bears the entire refurbishment and maintenance charges, they have a right to claim for reimbursement from the other co-owners. ... He also paid for the repair of the house and for installation of a new kitchen as well as for electricity and gas bills from his own earnings. However, there was no agreement to show the form of relationship that existed in the ownership of the estate either at present or in the future. According to their agreement, the estate was written in the name of Amaryllis.3 They have continued to live in the same house since then. In my view, by the virtue of their conduct and mutual agreement to live together the two co-owners had entered in a common tenancy. Under this form of ownership, there was no distinction as to what proportion of the property each of the two owns. Both Amaryllis and Basil have equal access to the property and can do anything they wish with the property. However, the parties should be careful with their deeds in order to avoid infringing the rights of each party.4 Therefore, each of the party may use the property according to their wishes, but should not interfere wit h the right of the other party. Under common tenancy, each of the co-owner of the property has a right to sell or to transfer the right to another person.5 Under such a situation, the third party to whom the property has been transferred to acquire absolute light similar to that which was held by the previous owner. In the light of this information, it can be argued that in the situation where Amaryllis invited her cousin Cecily to live in the estate with her, Amaryllis agreed to share her right in the property with Basil, but Cecily had no so such right as long as Amaryllis was in the estate.6 Therefore, Cecily could only enjoy limited rights as a share of what Amaryllis enjoyed and should in no way appear to enjoy

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Project Management Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 3

Project Management - Assignment Example Department managers will directly report to the project manager. Hence, with reduced hierarchy the project will efficiently with no delays and increased cost due to extra reporting levels (Ingason and JÃ ³nasson, 59-69). The project manager directs all the activities and task for the overall project, acting as information central point for the subcontractors. After getting all the information of the project’s direction and tasks assistant manager divided the task and responsibilities among the functional managers. Assistant project manager works as chairman of steering committee and interacts with both functional managers and contractors. The functional managers receive the guidelines and task responsibilities from assistant manager. In actual the role of contract officer is to serve as a central point for all the cost and information of the contract. The military type manger has some special skills that differentiate its personality from other mangers. The military manager focuses on these factors: insist on clear communication and alignment, produce high performing teams, relaxed in continuously changing environments and hire the replacement and alternatives. If the hierarchy adapted military kind of approach then it would boost the competence of collaboration among the employees, it would give more effective and efficient tem work results and it would make the attitude of managers adjustable in the changing environment (Forbes). The division of work among many authorities increases the efficiency and accuracy of decision making. And with the involvement of two higher mangers makes the evaluation and monitoring activities better in results (Atkinson, 337-342). This hierarchy is difficult to implement in any industry because of its limitations regarding the delegation of authorities and responsibilities among the employees and

Monday, October 14, 2019

Childhood Essay Example for Free

Childhood Essay Introduction Purpose and aims 2 Context and legal responsibilities 2 About this document 3 A principled approach 4 Setting the standards Providing for equality of opportunity Creating the framework for partnership working Improving quality and consistency Laying a secure foundation for future learning 4 4 5 5 5 Section 2 – Learning and Development Requirements Overview of the areas of learning and development 7 The early learning goals and educational programmes Personal, Social and Emotional Development Communication, Language and Literacy Problem Solving, Reasoning and Numeracy Knowledge and Understanding of the World Physical Development Creative Development 7 8 8 9 10 11 11 The assessment arrangements Assessment during the EYFS 12 `12 Assessment at the end of the EYFS – the Early Years Foundation Stage Profile 12 Assessment requirements 13 Section 3 Welfare Requirements Overview of the welfare requirements 15 Safeguarding and promoting children’s welfare Suitable people Suitable premises, equipment and environment Organisation Documentation 17 24 25 32 33 Section 4 – Other information Other legal duties 35 Competency in English 35 Exemptions Inspection and regulation Local Authorities Where to go for help 35 36 36 37 Appendix 1 Assessment Scales Appendix 2 Specific requirements for qualifications and ratios of adults to children SECTION 1 INTRODUCTION Purpose and aims 1. Every child deserves the best possible start in life and the support to fulfil their potential. A child’s experience in the early years has a major impact on their future life chances. A secure, safe and happy childhood is important in its own right, and it provides the foundation for children to make the most of their talents as they grow up. When parents choose to use early years services they want to know that provision will keep their children safe and help support them to thrive. The Early Years Foundation Stage (EYFS) is the framework that provides that assurance. 2. The overarching aim of the EYFS is to help young children achieve the five Every Child Matters outcomes of staying safe, being healthy, enjoying and achieving, making a positive contribution, and achieving economic well-being by: setting the standards for the learning, development and care young children should experience when they are attending a setting outside their family home, ensuring that every child makes progress and that no child gets left behind;  promoting equality of opportunity and anti-discriminatory practice and ensuring that every child is included and not disadvantaged because of ethnicity, culture or religion, home language, family background, learning difficulties or disabilities, gender or ability; creating the framework for partnership working between parents and professionals, and between all the settings that the child attends; improving quality and consistency in the early years sector through setting a universal set of standards which apply to all settings, ending the distinction between care and learning in the existing frameworks, and providing the basis for the inspection and regulation regime; and laying a secure foundation for future learning through learning and development which is planned around the individual needs of the child, and informed by the use of ongoing observational assessment. Context and legal responsibilities 3. The EYFS is part of a comprehensive package flowing from the ten year childcare strategy Choice for parents, the best start for children and the landmark Childcare Act 2006. The Act provides the context for the delivery of the EYFS and taken together with the other elements of the strategy, the EYFS will be central to the delivery of the new duties on improving outcomes and reducing inequalities. 4. The EYFS builds on the significant recent developments in early years curriculum and standards. Practitioners will recognise continuity with the principles, pedagogy and approach of the Curriculum Guidance for the Foundation Stage, the Birth to Three Matters framework, and the National Standards for Under 8s Day Care and Childminding. These three frameworks are replaced by the EYFS and will be repealed. 5. The EYFS will be given legal force through an Order and Regulations made under the Childcare Act 2006. From September 2008 it will be mandatory for all schools and providers in Ofsted registered settings attended by young children – that is children from birth to end of the academic year in which a child has his or her fifth birthday. The term â€Å"early years provider† includes maintained schools, non-maintained schools, independent schools, and childcare registered by Ofsted on the Early Years Register, all of which are required to meet the EYFS requirements. . 6. It is the legal responsibility of these providers to ensure that their provision meets the learning and development requirements, and complies with the welfare regulations, as required by section 40 of the Childcare Act 2006. About this document 7. This document forms part of the statutory framework for the EYFS. It sets out the learning and development requirements (the early learning goals; the educational programmes; and the assessment arrangements) in Section 2 and the welfare requirements (safeguarding and promoting children’s welfare; suitable people; suitable premises, equipment and environment; organisation; and documentation) in Section 3. The learning and development requirements are given legal force by the Early Years Foundation Stage (Learning and Development Requirements) Order 2007 made under section 39 (1) (a) of the Childcare Act 2006. The welfare requirements are given legal force by Regulations made under section 39 (1) (b) of the Childcare Act 2006. Together, the Order, the Regulations and the Statutory Framework document make up the legal basis of the EYFS. This document has statutory basis by virtue of section 44(1) of the Childcare Act 2006. 8. Providers must ensure that their early years provision complies with the learning and development requirements, and the welfare requirements. In addition, this document contains statutory guidance issued pursuant to Section 44 (4) of the Childcare Act 2006. All providers must have regard to this guidance, which means they must take it into account and, if they decide to depart from it, they must have clear reasons for doing so and be able to demonstrate to the Chief Inspector of Schools in England (Ofsted) that their alternative approach achieves the same ends as the guidance conveys. 9. This document is referred to as the EYFS Statutory Framework and is part of a package of  materials which comprise: this document (legal requirements including the Learning and Development Requirements Order and the Welfare Regulations and statutory guidance); EYFS Practice Guidance (contains the learning and development grids, non-statutory guidance, additional advice and information); and EYFS re sources for providers and practitioners (CD-ROM, poster and Principles into Practice cards). A Principled Approach 10. The EYFS principles which guide the work of all practitioners are grouped into four distinct but complementary themes, as set out below: A Unique Child Positive Relationships Enabling Environments Learning and Development 11. These four guiding themes underpin effective practice in the EYFS, put the requirements into context, and describe how practitioners should support the development, learning and care of young children. Each theme is supported by four commitments which describe how the principles can be put into practice, and these are expanded on in the EYFS Principles into Practice cards. 12. The four themes also underpin the five aspirations set out in paragraph two which tie into the Every Child Matters Outcomes. Setting the standards 13. The EYFS sets the standards for providers to enable them to reflect the experience which many parents give their children at home. As parents do, providers should deliver individualised learning, development and care which enhances their child’s development and gives them the best possible start in life. Every child should be supported individually to make progress at their own pace and children who need extra support to fulfil their potential should receive special consideration. All providers have an equally important role to play in children’s early years experiences – for example a childminder who sees a child for two hours a day should consider what a child’s individual needs are at that time of day, and ensure that the provision they deliver is both appropriate to those needs and complementary to the education and care which the child receives in its other setting(s). All types of providers have the potential to deliver the EYFS to an excellent standard. Providing for equality of opportunity 14. Providers have a responsibility to promote positive attitudes to diversity and difference – not only so that every child is included and not disadvantaged, but also so that they learn from the earliest age to value diversity in others and grow up making a positive contribution to society in this respect. Practitioners should focus on each child’s individual learning, development and care needs: removing or helping to overcome barriers for children where these already exist; the early identification of and response to needs which could lead to development of difficulties; and stretching and challenging all children. 15. All children, irrespective of ethnicity, culture or religion, home language, family background, learning difficulties or disabilities, gender or ability have the opportunity to experience a challenging and enjoyable programme of learning and development. Creating the framework for partnership working 16. Partnership working underpins successful delivery of the entire EYFS. Many children will receive education and care in more than one setting and in these cases practitioners must ensure effective continuity and coherence by sharing relevant information both with each other and with parents. Patterns of attendance should be a key factor in practitioners’ planning. Early years practitioners also have a vital role to play in working with parents to identify learning needs and to respond quickly to any area of particular difficulty. It will regularly be appropriate for practitioners to work together with professionals from other agencies, such as local and community health services, or where children are in care to identify needs and use their knowledge and advice to provide the best learning opportunities and environments for all children. Improving quality and consistency 17. The EYFS brings together and simplifies the learning and development and welfare requirements, in addition to ending the distinction between care and learning and between birth-to-three and three-to-five provision.

Sunday, October 13, 2019

Photochemical Degradation of Pharmaceutics Experiment

Photochemical Degradation of Pharmaceutics Experiment Experimental Methodology Experimental methodology executed for accomplishment of a project is one of the most important parts of study, deciding the ultimate outcomes of the study. For the present study It aimed at metal doped MCM-41 for the removal of pharmaceutics by then degradation under UV irradiation. The present investigation was therefore designed to avoid discrepancies as much as possible, and to maximize the outcomes. The photochemical degradation of pharmaceutics has become an important index in ecological environment safety evaluation of drugs. To elucidate the photodegradation profiles of drugs in the environment, many investigators have focused on solution photolysis in organic solvents or in a dilute aqueous solution. The present study was based on photo degradation of two commonly used pharmaceutics i.e., salts of diclofenac and atorvastatin in different solvents. Another perspective of the present study was to determine the metal dopped mesoporous silicates materials as catalyst for the photo degradation of pharmaceutics under UV radiations, sunlight and in absence of light. The details of the experimental methodology adopted are spelled out as under: 3.1 The glassware/ volumetric Apparatus The proper and appropriately cleaned and calibrated glassware and volumetric apparatus is necessary for accurate and precise analytical measurements. Thus, high quality pyrex glass-ware was used during the course of experiment. This apparatus was given through wash with detergent solution, diluted HNO3 and finally with distilled water. All the glassware used was dried at 100oC in an electric oven before use. All the apparatus like beakers, measuring flasks, pippets and graduated cylinders were calibrated prior to use. 3.2 The Reagents Synthesis of mesoporous silica, metal dopping on synthesized mesoporous material and degradation studies required various reagents. In addition to other parameters, the success of experimental methodology also depended on their purity and quality. So in order to ensure quality analytical grade chemicals which were purchased from Uni-chem (China), E.Merk (Germany), Riedel-deHaen (China) and Sigma Aldrich were used. Sodium silicate, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), H2SO4,(NH4)2 Ce(NO3)6, Cu(NO3)2.3H2O and copper acetate were obtained from sigma Aldrich with a crtified purity of 99.9%. In order to avoid any photo degradation, all the reagents were kept in dark. 3.3 Equipments/ instruments used a. The following equipments were used for the successful completion of the present study. Magnetic stirrer/ Hot plate Oven Shaker Muffle furnace UV-irradiator pH meter b Instrument Used UV- Visible Spectrophotometer The spectro photometric measurements were performed on a UV–visible double-beam spectrophotometer (U-2800). It operates on the principle of measurement of the intensity of light after passing through a sample (I) and comparing it to the intensity of light before it passes through the sample (Io). The ratio (I/I0 ) is called the transmittance, and is usually expressed as a percentage (%T). The absorbance, A is calculated by the following equation: A= log (%T/100) The basic compartment of a spectrophotometer include; light source, sample holder, a diffraction grating or monochromator to separate the different wavelengths of light, and a detector. The radiation source is often a tungsten filament (300-2500nm) and a deuterium arc lamp, which is continuous over the ultraviolet region (190-400nm). More recently, light emitting diodes (LED) and xenon arc lamps for visible wave length have also been incorporated. The detector is typically a photodiode or CCD (charge couple device detector to enhance the uv spectrophotometer performance). Photodiodes present with monochromators filter the light so that only light of single wavelength reaches the detector. Diffraction gratings with CCDs collect light of different wavelength on different pixels. 1og10Io/I= Æ lc Æ = greek letter, epsilon l= length of solution the light passese through(cm) c = concentration of solution (mol dm-3) The expression 1og10Io/I is known as the absorbance of the solution and is measured by the spectrometer. For the present study the UV spectrophotometer was used for determining the degradation of different pharmaceutical products under different conditions. For this purpose the absorbance of diclofenac sodium was recorded at a wavelength of 276 nm and that of atorvastatin was recorded at wavelength of 246 nm. c Bruker alpha ATR spectrophotometer The Platinum ATR is a single reflection diamond ATR sampling module that is designed to significantly ease analysis. The ergonomic one finger clamp mechanism simplifies the sample positioning. The robust diamond crystal allows analyze nearly all kind of liquid and solid samples. For the present study the IR analysis of MCM-41, Cu/MCM-41 and Ce/MCM-41 was c SDT-Q600 Thermo Gravimetric Analyser The TA Instruments SDT-Q600 Simultaneous TGA / DSC provides simultaneous measurement of weight change (TGA) and true differential heat flow (DSC) on the same sample from ambient to 1,500  °C. It features a field-proven horizontal dual beam design with automatic beam growth compensation, and the ability to analyze two TGA samples simultaneously. For the present study the thermogravimetric analysis of mesoporous silicate was: 3.2 Analytical Methodology 3.2.1 Preparation of mesoporous silica For the preparation of mesoporous silica the method of Taron was used. [i] In this method the sodium silicate was used as a source of silica and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) used as a surfactant. Briefly, a 15.75g part of sodium silicate was dissolved in 45.75g of DDW and stirred for 15 minutes at room temperature in a poly propylene container (A). A 13.535g of CTAB was separately dissolved in 200 ml of doubly distilled water at room temperature to prepare an aqueous solution of CTAB (B). To a stirred solution of precursor (A), the template solution (B) was added drop wise. After the completion of addition, the solution was further stirred for about 1h. Subsequently the pH of the contents was maintained at 10.5 by using 1:1 H2SO4, (6.7ml) which yielded a gel that was further stirred for about 45 minutes. The polypropylene container was then sealed and allowed to age for twenty four hours at room temperature without stirring. The gel thus obtained was filtered, washed with doubly distilled water to get rids of ions present as impurities and dried in an electric oven at 120oC. Thus dried product was allowed to calcine at a heating rate of 3oC/min for 6 hours while maintaining a maximum temperature of 550oC. The product obtained after calcinations was mesoporous silica MCM-41, that was used for further experiments. 3.2.2 Metal impregnation of mesoporous silica a) Preparation of CeO2/MCM-41 Li method was adopted for the synthesis of MCM-41/CeO2.[ii] This is based on grinding of precursors. In this method, 0.6402 g of (NH4)2Ce(NO3)6 and 0.3g of synthesized MCM-41 were placed in a mortar and ground significantly at room temperature conditions. The obtained solid was calcined at a heating rate of 5oC/min until the maximum temperature obtained 550  °C in air for 3 to 4 h to remove the surfactant molecules[iii] b) Preparation of copper supported mesoporous silica (Cu/MCM-41) The copper was loaded on the mesoporous support material through wet impregnation of silica. 2g of silica was stirred in 0.025M of 20mL copper acetate for 24 hours at room temperature. The copper impregnated silica was washed with distilled water to remove free copper and acetate ions and then dried at 70oC for 12h. The copper impregnated silica was calcined at 600oC for 4 h to get silica supported copper sample (Cu-MS).[iv] c) Preparation of Cu-dopped MCM-41 with different percentages: The MCM-41 mesoporous powder material after drying at 120oC over night was impregnated with solutions of different concentrations separately under continuous stirring for 12 h at room temperature, and then they were dried at 100oC. The obtained materials were calcined in air from room temperature to 150oC at 5oC/min and held at 150oC for 1 h, and then heated from 150oC to 250oC at the rate of 5oC/min and held at 250oC for 1 h, at last heated from 250oC to 330oC at 5oC/min and held at 330oC for 2 h. By using this procedure, samples containing 5, 10 and 15 wt% Cu-MCM-41 was prepared. [v] 3.2.3 Degradation studies Preparation of Pharmaceutics Standards Pharmaceutics Stock Solution Preparation A primary standard solution of pharmaceutics with concentration 1000 ppm was prepared by dissolving 0.1 g of pharmaceutics in 100 mL of solvent. The solution was kept in refrigerator at 4oC prior to use. Pharmaceutics Spiking Solution Preparation The intermediate standard solutions of pharmaceutics were prepared by diluting 0.5, 0.4. 0.3, 0.2 and 0.1mL of 1000ppm of stock solution upto 10mL of solvent to prepare 50, 40, 30, 20 and 10 ppm of standards. Effect of light Effect of time Effect of metal Effect of metal loading levels Effect of pH REFERENCES: [i] H. W. Lee , H. J. Cho , J.H. Yim , J. M. Kim , J.K. Jeon , J. M.Sohn , K.S. Yoo , S.S. Kim , Y.K. Park , Removal of Cu(II)-ion over amine-functionalized mesoporous silica materials, Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry (17) 504–509(2011) [ii] H. R.Pouretedal, M.Ahmadi, Synthesis, characterization, and photocatalytic activity of MCM-41 and MCM-48 impregnated with CeO2 nanoparticles, journal of International Nano Letters, 2:10(2012) [iii] (Li, Y, Yan, B, Functionalized mesoporous SBA-15 with CeF3: Eu3+ nanoparticle by three different methods: synthesis, characterization, and photoluminescence. Nanoscal. Res. Lett. 5, 701–708 (2010). [iv] Manish dixit, Manis mishra, P.A.Joshi, D.O.Shah, â€Å"Study on the catalytic properties of silica supported copper catalysts†, journal of procedia engineering, 51, 467-472(2013). [v] Ye Wan, Chao Chen, Weiming Xiao, Lijuan Jian, Ning Zhang, â€Å"Ni/MIL-120: An efficient metal–organic framework catalyst for hydrogenation of benzene to cyclohexane† , Microporous and Mesoporous Materials 17, 1 9–13(2013).

Saturday, October 12, 2019

Funding a United States Space Program :: essays research papers

Funding a United States Space Program It is imperative that the United States government should put forth a better initiative regarding our flailing national space programs, and increase their budgets considerably, stressing modification on its goals, modification of its resources, and for overall further advancement of its scope and capability. The space program had been heralded for years as the pride, and future, of the United States. Its promise brought hope to a society plagued by fear and competition, and has since been both the impetus for both immense technological competition, and then conversely, a symbol of cooperation between two diametrically opposed cultures. It brought numerous breakthroughs in medicine, materials science, engineering, and defense—over 30,000 advancements to date, including MRIs and CAT scans for detecting cancers and other health threats. Why does our government choose to slowly phase out the life of an entity that has only but added years to our own? The space program is an import ant part of our existence as Americans, and as world citizens.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The space program needs the appropriate funding for modification for fundamental purposes. The program has worked with the same prototype rocket for almost 50 years. New breakthroughs have emerged in planning and research; however the program does not have the means to go about implementing new ideas. With advancements created through space science research, such findings could create better means of travel on Earth. Also, space exploration gave us the first stark warnings of a world damaged by our endangerment of the environment, and it could further nurture the repair of our planet by allowing us to find better ways of utilizing our resources.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Space travel and exploration is needed for social purposes. Just as Russians and Americans, and now the Chinese, are able to put aside differences to embark on the ultimate human pioneering experience, so it is needed for the sake of unifying humanity through example. Someday, everyone in the world, even those not as privileged as the aforementioned societies, will be touched by the immense advancements space research has made, if they haven’t been touched already. Since we do not truly know what can be ‘out there’ awaiting us, both living and nonliving, it is important that we are prepared as a race to face them, in case a need or emergency arises in which we are forced to. Space travel concentrates on an investment in the betterment of humanity as a whole, and by so doing, it presents to the world the idea of our maturity as a race.

Friday, October 11, 2019

How does Frayn present ideas about growing up in Spies? Essay

In the novel Spies, the motifs of personal growth, growing up and childhood are all integral to the plotline. It could be said that besides the theme of memory, growing up is the most crucial theme of the novel. As a genre, Spies fits clearly into bildungsroman style, showing the importance of Stephen’s personal development with relation to the storyline. Throughout Spies, Stephen shows a great deal of personal growth as a character, from his outlook on life, to the ways he interacts with other characters. Frayn expresses this through a variety of literary techniques. Spies’ narrative style is set from two perspectives. Firstly, a reflective third person narrative from Stefan’s perspective as an elderly man that is recalling childhood memories. Secondly, a more direct first person narrative which seems to be more the perspective of Stephen as a young child. The contrast in narrative allows for greater flexibility in showing the contrast between the more mature man, and his younger counterpart. In chapter 9 when Mrs Hayward appeals to Stephen for his help, the perspective switches in the middle of the chapter, which is also indicative of the thought process of the character at that point. By the use of third person narrative to begin the chapter, Frayn gives Stephen’s mind a sense of distance and separation from the event, emphasising the surreal situation of an adult woman ‘driven to humble herself’ by asking a child for help, and Stephen’s inability to cope with the confusion that brings. It shows how at that point, despite his growing maturity, Stephen had not fully matured enough to fully comprehend what Mrs Hayward was asking of him. By dealing with this from a reflective aspect, allows for the elder Stefan to fill in some of the gaps in younger Stephen’s knowledge and understanding of the situation. When the perspective switches to the first person, it gives a greater sense of involvement of Stephen in the scene, and thus adopts language that is more childlike, and a younger inner voice. This again emphasises the difference between the thoughts of younger, and elder Stephen, and provides contrast between child and adulthood. Whereas younger Stephen’s sentences are much shorter and abrupt such as ‘Silence again. I sneak another look’, older Stefan’s language is more complex and extensive, as in examples like ‘he’d begun as her antagonist, now he was to become her accomplice’, showing that Stefan’s ability to express himself has yet to fully develop. These contrasting perspectives also allow to clearly show when the younger Stephen matures or achieves clarity on some thought, as in chapter eight. In this chapter, he claims ‘I see all kinds of things I never saw before’. Another example is when he begins to realise after Barbara’s interpretation that perhaps his and Keith’s ideas that Mrs Hayward is a German spy are perhaps false, or misunderstood. They also create many of the humorous points of the novel, by identifying childish misconceptions of life, and expressing them in a frank manner, as they would have been thought by the children. Characters such as Barbara Berrill and the Hardiment children provide aspects of comedy as to how they perceive the world, and how they are perceived by Stephen and the other children of the close. Barbara, being slightly older than Stephen, appears to have a more mature view on the world, yet it is shown how it is not necessarily correct, as when she claims ‘lots of ladies have boyfriends while everyone’s Daddies are away’. This shows a more romantic outlook on the world, biased by girls’ magazines and entertainment predominately focused more towards love, relationships, and families, rather than war and machismo. Other instances include credence being given to Elizabeth Hardiment due to the fact that she wears glasses; with no other basis for the claim that she is more knowledgeable or intelligent than any of the other children. Frayn also makes frequent use of symbolism to imply aspects of personal growth or sexual awakening. On a large scale, the tunnel that both Mrs Hayward and Stephen pass through to get to the barns can be said to represent a grander theme of Stephen’s transition from safety of childhood, to the more troubling nature of adulthood that Mrs Hayward frequents often. The fact that in order to make that transition Stephen is forced to confront guilt and self doubt shows his maturity as an individual, despite his motives for visiting the barns. Originally, this investigation is done with Keith, in order to discover Mrs Hayward’s secrets, but later again on his own Stephen shows a greater level of development, braving to face the barns on his own for reasons less self-motivated than before. Other smaller symbols used to represent growth include cigarettes and ‘x’ marks. Both of these symbols hold sexual connotations for Stephen, showing another aspect of how he matures throughout the novel. Cigarettes are a motif used throughout the novel to suggest intimacy and sexual relationships, as Deidre Berrill and Stephen’s brother Geoff are known to smoke together. This is explained to Stephen by Barbara in chapter 9 when she tells him ‘they smoke cigarettes and then they kiss each other’, thus implying there is a natural link and progression from one to the other. Mrs Hayward is also discovered to be leaving cigarettes for Uncle Peter in the barns, with the implication that they also smoke them together – another sign of intimacy. Finally also, Stephen and Barbara share cigarettes, this being indicative of their blooming relationship and Stephen’s increasing feelings towards her. As at the beginning of the novel, Stephen would not lower himself enough socially to talk to Barbara, the fact that he shares cigarettes with her further on shows how he has matured sexually, but also socially enough that he no longer feels that all girls are not worth talking to. The ‘x’ marks also represent sexual aspects of life to Stephen, being associated with kisses, femininity, equations, and things that he does not fully understand. As he begins to understand the meanings of the ‘x’ marks, he also begins to realise the childish nature of what he originally believed Mrs Hayward’s secrets were about. By maturing enough to grasp the more romantic nature of ‘x’ marks, rather than the sinister, allows him to accept more the idea that Mrs Hayward’s secret is of a more feminine and sexual nature than her being a German spy. Therefore, the ideas Frayn presents on the concept of growing up in Spies are largely in the use of symbolism and perspective switch, creating the varying levels of understanding for younger Stephen, and allowing the reader to understand the contrast between the thoughts and perspective of the younger character, versus the more elderly character reflecting. This also reinforces the overall theme of memory in the novel, as to have only one perspective throughout Spies would deny the reader to a whole level of the character’s emotions, either the more analytical emotions expressed in reflective speech, or the more abrupt and immediate emotions of the character as he is dealing with the situations he is facing. It is the combination of the two that creates the level of effectiveness that Spies has as a novel.

Thursday, October 10, 2019

Verble & Non Verble Communication

Assignments – Marks Allocation Breakdown | | Setting the scene | |Introduction and issue analysis | |Exposition | |Directly addresses the question | |Uses a wide range of information drawn from course material to address the issues | |Uses a wide range of information drawn from other sources (journals, articles, etc) to address | |the issues | |Contextualises the learning to the workplace | |Quality of conclusions and recommendations implemented | |Data collection and qualitative analysis/literature review | |Originality | |Attempts original research and analysis, creative and challenging insights to balanced | |perception | |Structure and presentation | |Logical sequence with sections well linked | |Good flow and clarity of presentation | |Balance between text, use of charts, diagrams, headings, sub-headings, etc | |Professional business-like style | |Compliance | |Word count | |Submission on time | My topic of choice is Verbal and Non-verbal Interpersonal Communication I will assess each below 8 A) Verbal InterpersonalCommunication Verbal Interpersonal Communication uses language as means of communication between cultures. In languages, there are set of rules about the use of words in the creation of messages. The usage of language in interpersonalcommunication can be either spoken or written. Below are some features of a language or connected with language: a) Phonology – sounds of language ) phoneme – smallest unit of sound, example; cat, tdk – why is cat correct but not tdk, English has 45 phonemes (ch, th) c) Morphology -smallest units of meaning, example, morpheme, happy, happiness, unhappiness d) Semantics -study of meaning of words, the understanding of vocabulary in order to function in a language. There are two types of meanings in languages: i) denotative meanings – public, objective, legal meanings of words ii) connotative meanings – personal, emotionally charged meanings For example, What does test me an to you? e) Syntactics -relationships of words to one another, word order f) Pragmatics – effect of language on human perceptions and behaviors ) Translation – transfer of written verbal codes between language, has time h) Interpretation – oral process of moving from one code to another Examples of Language Language follows culturally determined patterns which influence thinking. Some examples: – English is linear, Arabic combines ideas through conjunctions, hard to discover main idea when translating into English. – England, Ireland, Canada, USA – all speak English, is it the same? – Arabic â€Å"inshallah†, intonation, Arabic uses exaggeration, overassertion, repetition, elaboration, 10 words for English, 100 words for Arabic. – Writers Shakespeare used 34,000 words, today a good writer 15,000-20,000. Eskimos have 30 words for snow. 9 B) Non Verbal InterpersonalCommunication Non-verbal InterpersonalCommunication uses non-verbal codes as means of communication between cultures. Non-verbal codes are as the following: †¢ is a multichanneled process †¢ spontaneously performed †¢ possess nonlinguistic behaviors †¢ enacted subconsciously †¢ can be intentional or unintentional †¢ is not taught, but learned through observation and experiences Characteristics of Nonverbal Codes Non-verbal codes function as a silent language and impart meanings in subtle and covert ways, continuous, natural, blur into another, less precise. Relationship of Verbal to Nonverbal: 1. accent the verbal 2. omplement the verbal (smiling, pointing) 3. contradict the verbal (nonverbals are opposite to spoken) 4. regulate the conversation (looking, gestures) 5. substitute, take the place of the verbal Cultural Universals in Nonverbal Communication 1. same body parts are used 2. convey similar meanings 3. accompany verbal 4. motives are the same 5. control and coordinate contexts and relationships that are the same Cultural Variations in Nonverbal Communication 1. repertoire of behaviors are different 2. display rules – when and where 3. interpretations of meanings. 4. random 5. idiosyncratic 6. shared meaning and significance Body Movements – Kinesics Refers to gestures, head movements, facial expressions, eyes. 1. Emblems – nonverbals that have direct verbal counterpart 2. Illustrators – accompany the verbal, more easily understood 3. Affect – show feelings, emotions, body and face 4. Regulators – synchronize behavior, control the flow of conversation 5. Adapters – reaction to physical state, scratching, unintentional Space – Proxemics Refers to how people use physical space. Example: cold means having large physical distances and warm means having smaller physical distances. Touch Affects positive and negative feelings and may denote the following meanings: †¢ playfulness †¢ control †¢ ritual purpose †¢ task related Time – Chronemics Here, time is the main determinant of communication and is used in various: Example, past oriented means having a circular approach to life , present oriented means enjoying the spontaneity of the situation and future oriented means tomorrow. Voice Refers to the use of different tones of voices when communicating. Example, Through pitch, rate of talking, rhythm and volume Chemical codes Here, smell is used when communicating, for example wearing perfumes 10 Conclusion 1. Communication is a process when a sender transmits a message to a receiver using a particular medium. The medium used can either be verbal or non-verbal, which includes printed or electronic medias. 2. Culture refers to a group of people or society that has the share the same norm (what is expected of an individual) and values (what is considered good or bad in that particular group or society). 3. A group or society that live in close proximity with one another is called a community. 4. Cultures can be distinguished based on certain dimensions like Low Context Culture, High Context Culture, Individualism, Collectivism, High Power Distance, Low Power Distance, Low Uncertainty Avoidance, High Uncertainty Avoidance, Masculine, Feminine, Monochronic, Polychronic, Acquired Status and Given Status. 5. For the people in a group or society to interact with one another, communication is necessary.

Marine science Essay

5.Explain how a Harmful Algal Bloom can impact an ecosystem. The toxins can be spread throughout various organisms as of humans and the food chain. If the consistent blooms it can block the light from reaching into the water and it can cause many organisms dead. 6.Create a chart or Graph showing the estimated economic impact of HABs on the United States over three years. You may use any type of chart or graph you wish. If you need some help with charts or Graphs click on the Graphs and Chart Help below. You may use one for each year or include all three years on the same chart or graph. Based on the data what would you predict about the economic impacts in the years to come? 1.Name two types of sickness you can get from phytoplankton in Florida, and describe how you can get them. What symptoms led to the diagnosis of our patients? The two types of sickness are Lyngba and Karlodinium Veneficum. You can get lyngba when you swimming in the ocean and you can get karlodinum veneficum if you eaten a fish they have toxins in it. 2.Explain how an HAB outbreak can have a devastating economic impact? It reaches to tourism, public health, safety jobs, and coastal communities. It causes the beaches to be closed the fishing and shellfish to shut down. 3.Why do you think it can be difficult to determine the causes of HAB related illnesses and events? It can be very difficult because many of the symptoms are like every sickness which include sniffling, coughing, sneezing, and may be confused as a common cold or fever. 4.Summarize how the conditions found in the Gulf of Mexico contribute to the overgrowth of phytoplankton. Gulf of Mexico has over 40 kinds of toxic algae and since people still eat the fish it contribute to the overgrowth.

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

The Strategic Environment Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

The Strategic Environment - Assignment Example In this period, there has been an increased threat to U.S national security, more than ever before. There are several factors contributing to these threats such as increased development of weapons of mass destruction, more countries becoming a nuclear power, increased formation of a terrorist organization, rebellious groups taking refuge in other countries and operating against U.S interests etc. It can easily be seen that, during the 21 century, there has been an increased threat to a country’s security and national interests. The infamous 9/11 incident that shook the world and brought Al Qaeda on the big screen, the London bombings of 2005, the Mumbai attack in 2008 etc. All these infamous incidents show that every country is under extreme threat whether it is from terrorist organizations, infiltrates within the country or due to any other reason. It is very obvious that a country has to take steps and measures to protect its country and U.S being a global and nuclear power and a world dominant it is very natural to say that it has to safeguard its interests the most. It is safe to assume that the U.S would have the best strategic intelligence cycle in place, but it too is liable to mistakes, such as in 2003 when the strategic intelligence information confirmed that there were weapons of mass destruction in Iraq and therefore invaded Iraq; however, later they were proved wrong as there were no WMD(Johnson 2007). There have been several factors identified by the National Intelligence Security (NIS) which may cause harm to U.S National interests, however the most significant are: Violent Extremism: It has been identified by the NIS that violent extremist groups such as Al-Qaeda, Taliban etc will continue to pose a great threat to U.S security. It has been acknowledged that these people are not causing threat for the purpose of acquiring money or abduction but they are seriously out for what they call revenge and will take any possible steps to cause dish armony and violence in different regions. They have previously done that on several occasions and in different countries such as U.S, U.K etc which shows that they can reach such places even when there is tightest of security present. The steps identified by the U.S to counter them is to identify such terrorist groups and people, intercede and disrupt, cut off aid and supply of weapons of mass destruction and stop their operations. Enhance Cyber security: Enhancement of cyber security is a significant step that the U.S should take in order to reduce the threat of proliferation through cyber space. It has been identified that the architecture of U.S digital structure is not very secure (Johnson 2007). It was found out that there have been attempts to valuable information from the Pentagon through cyber space. Now, all the information is stored digitally, so there has been an increased attempt by these terrorist groups to explore future advancements of America’s intelligence or ganizations, so they may act accordingly. Through cyber space these terrorist organizations have attempted to change or steal information in order to undermine the nation’s confidence and attack the country (Johnson 2007). Increased use of Wifi etc has made internet vulnerable and terrorist could easily hack password of a normal user of Wifi and use it to steal