Wednesday, November 27, 2019

Science vs. Religion free essay sample

The debate between religion and science has been going on for years, clashing together with different ideologies. The argument combines historical and philosophical approaches to contest to each side, battling to disprove each other. While religion is based on faith, using the will of God to guide them in their observations, scientists use experiments to find discoveries based on facts. The conflict between religion and science hasn’t been fiery in modern times, compared to the years where science was inferior to religion, but the topic has still been brought up in discussion. Can someone be both a scientist and a religious person? Although they may both pursue knowledge, there methodologies are completely different, pitting each other into heated discussions. In our past lecture with Brother Guy Consolmagno, he argues that Christianity isn’t completely based on faith in God. The church is also continuously studying the universe, like scientists, trying to learn more about our origins. We will write a custom essay sample on Science vs. Religion or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Comparable to science, ideals in the church changes, and aren’t always set in stone. The Bible may be the guide for most religious people, but there are also different interpretations of the Bible that people find to counteract certain claims. Guy uses evidence that the first medieval Church universities started the modern study of astronomy. The university learned: grammar, rhetoric, and dialectic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music courses, which showed that it was like any other university teaching students for a better career. The university may be Christian based, but it didn’t ignore what science offered them. According to Guy, Jesuits run 25% of all observations in Europe. They helped create the definition of a â€Å"year,† based on our four seasons. Despite the differences between religion and science, Guy believes that we can comingle ideas from both sides to progress our studies of the universe even further. (Consolmagno) One of the topics in The Constant Fire introduces James Clerk Maxwell, one of the great physicists in his time, and his view of religion and science co-existing with each other. Maxwell formulated equations that explained electric and magnetic fields and the unification of these concepts into electromagnetism. Maxwell’s equations and mathematical laws are the reason why we have radio, television, and all electronic technology today; although he constructed scientific laws for his devotion to science, he was also a devout Christian. â€Å"I believe†¦that Man’s chief end is to glorify God and to enjoy him forever. † (Maxwell) He attended church regularly, read scripture before going to sleep at night, and even committed the entire psalms to memory. It showed that his religious belief was unyielding, despite his scientific advances in society. At the same time I think that each individual man should do all he can to impress his own mind with the extent, the order, and unity of the universe, and should carry these ideas with him as he reads [the Bible]. † (Maxwell) Learning about the universe through a different perspective doesn’t waver doubt; instead, it enriches spiritual understanding. Maxwell set an example showing how his experience in science was an aspiring journey to glorify his God. (Frank) The Constant Fire also explains Isaac Newton’s perception of his work towards science contrary to his religious beliefs. Newton asserted himself as a â€Å"priest of nature. † Like any religious person, he believed there was a God of absolute power. Although, he also believed that his work was exploring God’s greatness, making science a way of explaining his creation. â€Å"It is the perfection of God’s works that they are all done with the greatest simplicity. He is the God of order amp; not confusion. † (Newton) Both scientific philosophy and religion were inseparable, as both concepts bounced off each other. Even coming from one of the greatest scientists in the orld, like James Maxell, Newton concluded that there ironically was no warfare between science and religion. (Frank) Science comes from the creativity of an individual making up a new hypothesis. Religion comes from varied interpretations of how they view the spiritual being they worship. We don’t have enough evidence from the universe to commit to a godless path, and we are too knowledgeable enough to pledge to a specific religious ideal. I believe there is such thing as a middle ground: taking the possibility of new ideas and building an equal foundation. I still keep to the constitution of scientific theory composing our world, but I also keep multiple hypotheses in mind. We should be open-minded, and explore the different possibilities of the unfathomable unknowns of our universe. I’m not afraid to ask the lingering question science and religions try to explain.

Sunday, November 24, 2019

Leonard Bersteines Recording of Tristan and Isolde

Leonard Bersteines Recording of Tristan and Isolde Free Online Research Papers When I read on the course syllabus that the first short assignment of this course will be writing a review for a performence of Richard Wagners three-act, romantic masterpiece: Tristan and Isolde, I was ecstatic. Ive always enjoy love stories, but even more so when it is put into music. To me, love and music are like two pieces of puzzles that completes each other. Conducted between 1857-1859, this opera was considered one of the the most influential piece of opera ever written with Wagner breaking the rule of the traditional rules harmony and used it in a whole new way. It is consider one of the turning point of not only opera, but western music. After going thru a couple of the recordings by different productions in the University Music Library, Ive decided to write about the conduction of Leonard Bernstein, a five-disc, 1981 live recording of this magnificent opera. Leonard Bersteine, has always been one of my favourite music composers, mostly for the music that he wrote for the famous musical, West Side Story. He was also an author, pianst, and a music conductor. And boy oh boy, he certainly did not dissapoint in conducting the score of Tristan. The recording of the entire orchestra was the most detailed version that I came across. The clarity and the richness of the music was simply flawless! The fourteen minute long Prelude, while a bit on the slow side, was espcially remarkable and beautiful. It came with so much feeling and got to my heart instantly. What a way to open an opera on a love story! Musically, I thought that through out the whole Opera, there was no paritcular highlight, because each part (cd) was one. I could truely feel the sense of passion, conflicting emotion and tension in different parts of the story, being brought out thru Bernsteins conducting. In addition to the music, the singing of both Tristan and Isolde were also wonderous. By Bersteines choice, Tristan was being sang by Peter Hofmann and Isolde by Hildegard Behrens while King Marke, Brangane were sang by Hans Sotin and Yvonne Minton. Hofmann, a German tenor, was at the time a rather talented actor/singer. I did not know much about him but I thought his performence was done extremely well. I liked his deep, manly vocal which thou was full of youth a great deal. For the most part, he was very steady with his singing and you could feel that he wasnt just singing out the lines he seemed to be rather into being Tristan, as his voice had the passion aswell as feel for the character. I was able to feel the tragic moments, notibally towards the end of the opera. Behrens, a German Soprano, on the other hand, was also great. Her voice was so beautiful and I really liked all of her solo parts. Her singing of the high notes were exceptional, espcially during Isoldes famous Liebe stod, which I thought was by far the most emotional part of the Opera. I thought Behrens Isoldes conflicting emotions inside was brought out nicely by Behrens. The other singers (Sotin/Minton etc.) were also execellent. Overall, I thought it was incredible that Bersteine was able to put together an amazing performence of such astonishingly difficult masterpiece while making all of his singers and the orchestra performing at their best. I enjoyed listening to it to the fullest. It is certainly one of the most beautiful recording that Ive ever heard. Research Papers on Leonard Bersteine's Recording of Tristan and IsoldeHip-Hop is ArtWhere Wild and West MeetThe Masque of the Red Death Room meaningsThe Spring and AutumnComparison: Letter from Birmingham and CritoMind TravelHonest Iagos Truth through DeceptionBook Review on The Autobiography of Malcolm XTrailblazing by Eric AndersonHarry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Essay

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Corporate Strategy on Corporate Social Responsibility Article

Corporate Strategy on Corporate Social Responsibility - Article Example A survey conducted by KPMG demonstrates that almost a third of the businesses enterprises in the United Kingdom have reduced their expenses towards corporate social responsibility initiatives. In this period of financial squeeze business enterprises are revisiting their strategies towards corporate social responsibilities from the perspective of the strategies that they need to put in place to make the business sustainable. Business enterprises believe that sustainable business is the reason for the existence of the business enterprise and therefore there is the shift in focus towards corporate social responsibility strategies being tailored to suit the needs of the sustainable business. In other words, corporate strategy on corporate social responsibility has changed to viewing corporate social responsibility as less of a moral compass, diluting its implications towards taking the business forward in the reality of difficult financial circumstances. This change in corporate strategy with regards to corporate social responsibility is despite the several examples of big business enterprises going forward to remain more than competitive in their spheres of business activity through showing due diligence to their responsibility to society, through the corporate responsibility strategies. The only way to shift this negative trend in business enterprise thinking on corporate social responsibility is for stronger government regulations and framework that are coercive towards the real intents of corporate social responsibility. Failure to achieve this will diminish the intent of corporate social responsibility by business enterprises (Evans, 2010).

Wednesday, November 20, 2019

Anti-kickback Laws and Violations Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2750 words

Anti-kickback Laws and Violations - Term Paper Example Anti-kickback laws are laws that are used to protect patients from frauds by the physicians. The patient who is subjected to such abuse usually has a financial alliance with the physician. The financial alliance can either be ownership of property or remuneration of certain goods. Physicians tend to take advantage of the beneficiaries whom they are supposed to offer medical services to decompensate their financial losses. They do this by asking for extra funds or providing poor services to the patients. Statutory laws were made governing the conducts of physicians and the punishment given thereafter (Schachter 2008). Physicians violate the anti-kickback laws due to poor salaries and denial of some insurance companies over the claim of the physician. Here are some of the state laws that control the referral of beneficiaries by physicians. The statute forbids state healthcare providers from deliberately imploring any compensation from the beneficiary for a service offered whose payment is to be made under the state health care program. The Federal Anti-kickback Statute is a purpose-based statute. The Federal Healthcare Program in the United States Government is a program that provides health services and acquires its funds from the government either partly or in whole. Some of the transactions are federal apart from the Federal Anti-kickback Statute (Schachter 2008). The consequences of going against the Federal Anti-Kickback Statute are very brutal which includes fines of up to $25000, imprisonment of up to five years, barring from participating in state healthcare programs and administrative public money fines of up to $50000. In order to avoid violating the stark laws, it is important to understand the definition of some of the terms used in the stark law. This includes understanding which people count as the immediate family and what a financial relationship is, investment

Sunday, November 17, 2019

Experience with Market Place Live Term Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1250 words

Experience with Market Place Live - Term Paper Example Advertising- The Company had a small advertising budget because it wanted to keep its costs low. Having a low advertising budget led to the rejection of the company’s adverts by the International advertising federation. Had the advertising succeeded, the company would have sold more and even increased its market share from the current 38 percent. Sales team- The selected sales team was too small as compared to the demanding market in which the company operates. If the company had a stronger sales team, it could have sold more units and would have sold all the units as compared to the current situation where it had inventory left. The company should, therefore, focus on building a strong sales team both for the web and the sales office. Un-fulfilled demand- Dues to the small size of the company’s sales team; a situation which left the company with inventory totaling 400 as shown below. The figures above show that the demand per salesperson for Space-Age Technology was mu ch higher as compared to other of its competitors. The sales team had to work three times harder than those of other companies. Cutting costs- The Company decided to cut costs by redesigning its brand of computers and invest more in areas that were thought would help the company grow. The company missed the opportunity to make money and increase its market share by using the competitors brand data in making its redesign decision. The redesign decisions that affected Space Age Technology are shown below.

Friday, November 15, 2019

Global Crime Justice And Security Politics Essay

Global Crime Justice And Security Politics Essay Traditionally the state was not responsible for the provision of security and policing, but with the emergence of the modern state and modern policing, the state began to assume a more active role in this respect, and eventually became the sole provider of security. Indeed states possessed the legal monopoly of force over their own territory and their own citizens. With the emergence of globalisation, and the increase in interdependence among states, this approach was in need of reform. Increasingly states cooperated with each other in the field of policing and criminal justice. Interpol was established in 1923 to promote transnational police cooperation, and eventually Europol was created to promote cooperation within the euro zone in the 1990s. The reason being that criminals could more easily cross borders; therefore crime was also transcending national boundaries. In order To address this globalisation of crime, States envisaged a global response to global crimes, such as drugs t rafficking, money laundering, terrorism and the like. This transnational police cooperation transcended national borders, but nevertheless the interests of states were still at the heart of the operation, with national public police forces being the main actors in transnational policing. In recent years the role of the state has diminished and a gap in the security market opened up, leading to other actors taking the place of the state in the field of security and policing. The increase in private policing activity has led some to be concerned that policing is increasingly being taken away from nations and put into the hands of other public and private actors. In this essay, I will attempt to assess the significance of the increase in public and private policing activity and the effect it has both on nations and transnational policing. In order to do so, I will first look at policing and its development into the contemporary concept of transnational policing, before looking at the r ole of the state and the provision of security. Then I will turn to the public and private actors now involved in policing, in an attempt to establish whether they are indeed replacing the state as the main provider of security and policing. Finally, I will include an exception to the rule that the state is losing power by analysing the case of the USA, which remains powerful in the promotion of its interests, proving that the state is still important despite the increase in globalisation. I will conclude with a summary of the facts and my own perspective on the issue. Traditional policing (States services, armed forcesà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦etc) Radzinowicz (1956) and Ostreich (1982) trace the origins and functioning of police back to mid-sixteenth century Germany. Traditionally, policing was not seen as the direct responsibility of the State, rather it lay in local civil society. In the UK, policing was performed by privately funded watchmen until 1737, when King George II began paying some watchmen with tax money, thus commencing the movement to government controlled policing. In 1829, the Metropolitan Police Act was passed by Parliament, leading to the foundation of the London Metropolitan Police, currently the longest serving police force. This development granted the police a preventive role intended to deter urban crime and disorder. In this system, military organisations were to secure the nation state and its citizens from the external threats posed by invading armies and police organisations, were to protect the state from internal threats posed by acts of crime and disorder. Since their origin, the fundamental concept behind police forces has been the preservation of order in a community bound by rule of law (Ramsbotham and Woodhouse, 1999). The concepts of policing and governance have been heavily influenced by recent developments, namely globalisation, and by changing boundaries between public and private controls over police and security forces (Sheptycki, 2002). Globalization, a term introduced into common usage in the 1950s and 60s, brought with it a variety of innovations, such as the integration of societies and cultures and the exchange of information, making states more interdependent and reliant on each other economically, socially and politically. However, it also brought several problems to the fore, such as the increase in global threats. By which we mean those threats which transcend national boundaries and impact many, if not all, states. Examples of such threats include terrorism, drugs trafficking, money laundering, human trafficking and nuclear proliferation, to name but a few. The markedly international context, in which crimes such as these are committed, has the effect of encouraging co-operation between those states which share the desire to reduce the threat to their security. These new threats have the potential to impact more than one country, therefore a unilateral approach is no longer sufficient, and states must coope rate to effectively tackle these transnational issues. This can either mean that national police forces establish links to facilitate the sharing of information, or that policing forces (including the military) unite to intervene in conflict situations in other countries. The ease of movement of people and criminality across national boundaries have necessitated the exchange of criminal intelligence and of operational assistance between states and between national police forces (see Walker, 1993, Harris, 1973; Reiner, 1992). Globalisation has increased interdependence, therefore what happens in other countries can now have an effect on security at home also, making transnational policing in the interest of all states. What is transnational policing?(eg..?) The term transnational policing entered into use in the mid-1990s as a description for forms of policing that transcended the boundaries of the sovereign nation state (Sheptycki, 1995) It is a difficult concept to pin down, but generally speaking it applies to those forms for policing which transgress national borders, such as cross-border police cooperation and policing assistance to weak, failing or conflict-ridden states. As Walker and Loader put it, transnational policing has become an expanding, diverse and complex field of activity. From the outset, modern policing has maintained transnational elements, both professionally and politically. Professionally, police officers and institutions have always cultivated international contacts, due to the practicalities of law enforcement. Politically, transnational links are to facilitate arrangements to exchange information, support or liaison between police organisations and criminal justice systems. Police development-aid to failed or failing states is another form of transnational policing that has garnered attention. This form of transnational policing plays an increasingly important role in United Nations peacekeeping (Goldsmith and Sheptycki, 2007). Organised crime is another argument used to justify further police cooperation in Europe. This term is used in relation to different forms of serious crime such as drug trafficking, corruption or even terrorism. It rose on the agenda in the 1980s but combatting it remains central to encouraging transnational police cooperation. Up to now, transnational policing has been closely related to governmental law enforcement at the national level. Following Max Webers state theory, the monopoly on the use of force is a main characteristic of a state, yet today institutions coordinating the use of force at international levels exist without the formal framework of a state. Sheptycki (2002a) argues that, à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦policing is no longer a set of practices embedded in the sovereign nation-state, but rather has become trans-nationalised and greatly differentiated. Role of the State In the pre-globalisation world, the State was responsible for maintaining security, and indeed the people relied on the state to provide it. However, in a world where borders no longer retain the same significance they once did, is the role of the state diminishing? Some would say so (see Bauman, 1998; Hardt and Negri, 2000; Ohmae, 1990; Reich, 1991); these first-wave theorists perceive the nation-state as withering away, unable to resist the challenge posed by globalisation and the emerging global economy. Others, however, argue that the role of the state may be changing, but it is still important in the international system. Evidence of this can be noted through continued State involvement in conflicts across the globe, in the intensification of border controls and the expansion of state surveillance and bureaucracy  [1]  . Indeed, as Walker and Loader point out, The State, [] remains the principal if by no means any longer the sole institutional locus of efforts to subject s ecurity practices to forms of democratic steering, public scrutiny and human rights protection  [2]   Nevertheless, it is easy to see that the face of policing is changing somewhat, reflecting the gradual development of a new world order in which the state is no longer the unrivalled unit of political authority, but is challenged by new transnational or supranational regulatory regimes such as the UN, NAFTA and the EU. These new entities assert authority similar to that traditionally associated with state sovereignty. The declining powers of the nation state have been one of the most politically discussed aspects of globalisation. Privatisation of state functions and assets, and the increasing power of global corporations are seen as clear indications of the imminent decline of the state. (aas) Thatcherism and Reganism are sometimes brought into the debate over the changing role of the state: the rolling back of the state has led individuals to take more responsibility over their own safety and security, thus making security a commodity rather than a public good. In this view the state has maintained a regulatory role, but decreased its role in the provision of security services, leading to a rise in private endeavours taking over the reins.(ME) State power is being relinquished outwards, to the commercial sector and the private security industry, upwards to international bodies, and downwards to citizens, private organisations and municipalities. (walker and loader, 2001: 10) There is an increasing disconnect between policing and the nation state. This is due to the rise in private policing, but also to internationalisation and transnationalisation of policing. Police practices increasingly transcend national borders.(AAS) Deflem (2002) argues that the development has been enabled by a process in which international police agencies gradually gained bureaucratic independence from the state. Transnational policing is, therefore, both an extension of state powers and a move towards greater autonomy from the state. Public and private actors: The roll back of the state left a gap in the security field, due to its inability to provide the service required. This allowed room for other public and private actors to assume the role of main provider of security and policing solutions. This development, paired with the increase in global interdependence and cooperation between states has meant that non state actors are becoming more involved in transnational policing too. Eg: EU, UN, Europol, eurojust, private companies. Some private companies are mainly involved in military interventions in other states; others are so wide reaching that they are involved in a multitude of policing operations (such as prison security abroad, protection of foreign political figures, accompanying suspects from one state to another for the purpose of extradition, etc..). High profile individuals also have an impact in the policing agenda, as do police leaders. As David Last puts it, States are not the only international actors, nor is state sovereignty uncontested. Policing becomes more complex if we consider non-state and supra-state or international actors  [3]  . In this section of the essay I will examine the role of other public and private actors in transnational policing, to establish whether their interests are indeed superseding those of States. Private: Private Police forces are law enforcement bodies that are owned and/or controlled by non-governmental entities. Often they carry out functions similar to those of public police forces, but clearly their priorities are not based on the interests of the state, but on those of their private employer. Private security is part of the growing internationalisation of police. Evidence of the growth of private policing can be found in the fact that there are now three times as many private as public police in the United States and twice as many private security agents than public police officers in the UK. In addition the private security industry is growing faster than public policing. The dramatic growth in private security in the past several decades has reshaped the structure and function of modern policing. Private security is commonly thought to be a largely American phenomenon; however, increasingly it is to be found in one form or another in almost every developed country of the Western world (see Grabosky, 1977; Hovav and Amir, 1979; Heijboer, 1979). The concentration of private security in the hands of vast multinational corporations within a country raises questions as to the locus of sovereignty in that country, which has traditionally been associated with the maintenance of law and order. Furthermore, more often than not, these companies are under foreign ownership, raising further questions of state sovereignty. This also raised concerns as to the control the private company may have over the State and over policymaking within that state. There is a fundamental distinction between private and public policing: accountability. The police force is one of the most basic forms of public service. They are entrusted with particular powers because they are accountable to government, and the public. The private security industry, by contrast, is not accountable to the public, but to the clients who contract for its services. Private security companies are not only employed by private corporations, but they can also be contracted by governments. This was the case of Executive Outcomes, a private military company founded in South Africa in 1989. Executive Outcomes (EO) provided military support to governments such as that of Angola and Sierra Leone in the early 1990s, assisting the legitimate government in the conflict with rebel forces. This growth in private policing raises concerns as to whose interests are pursued in transnational policing? The state, which aims to protect its citizens; or private companies, who aim to protect the interests of their employer or contractor? There are also other actors who influence the decision-making for transnational policing including police leaders. High ranking police officers have played a central role for the political agenda setting and for the implementation of transnational policing. They set the groundwork which later led to international conventions, they played a dominant role in the setting up of Interpol, and they initiated a transnational police network by establishing contacts with foreign colleagues, even in those states which had been enemies not long before. Governments played the legislative role in the setting up of this structure, where as police officers were the initiators and the executors. This crucial role high ranking police officers played in the definition of the requirements for effective cross-border police work eventually led to the establishment of those European cooperation projects of the 1980s and the 1990s. Without the initiative of police officials, transnational cooperation may have assumed a very different aspect today. PUBLIC: Transnational policing is of course a complex and diverse concept, with many different actors involved. As mentioned previously, traditionally the main actor in policing was the State, but developments in the global order have led to the introduction of other players, such as private policing agencies, and high ranking individuals which indubitably have acted in such a way which reflects their owns interests. However, there are other fundamental players in the field of transnational policing which have yet to be addressed: public actors, by which we mean international or supranational organisations which are incredibly influential in international affairs more generally and transnational policing, specifically, depending on their function. Sheptycki, 2000a: inter-national policing still maintains the state as the focal point; trans-national policing is when the practice transcends the state system. Interpol is the perfect example of inter-national policing, as it is a truly internati onal police organisation (Walker 2003:117); it is still heavily dependent on nations and national resources, and legal systems. Therefore, here the interests of state are still central. Europol is more a trans-national policing body, which developed through the European Union, within the emerging structures of freedom, security and justice. Since 1999, and the Tampere summit, issues of internal security have become increasingly important leading to the creation of the European Arrest Warrant, Eurojust, a common European border control agency(frontex) and the police chiefs operational task force. These recent European developments have given the EU security field the semblance of a state-like function (Mathiesen, 2003) The field of transnational policing has been open to problems of accountability due to the lack of transparency and the plurality of networks and actors involved. (aas) New international legal norms and regimes are produced and managed by international institutions such as the EU and the UN. The limits of state sovereignty are therefore challenged by international law and the emerging forms of global governance, where state sovereignty becomes multiple, overlapping and shared (held, 1995) The International Criminal Police Commission, established in 1923, and its post-second world war successor, INTERPOL, were set up to facilitate communication between the participating national police organisations. Governmental intervention in these organisations remained minimal (Anderson, 1989:37). Today, INTERPOL has expanded significantly, both in terms of membership and in terms of activities and methods, nonetheless it still exists to facilitate cross-border police co-operation, and support and assist all organizations, authorities and services whose mission is to prevent or combat international crime  [4]  . However, it is no longer the pre-eminent player. Its influence has been lessened by two developments in particular: the internationalisation of the US law enforcement, and the creation and expansion of the European Union. The USA became more involved in matters of transnational law enforcement since the explosion of international drug trafficking in the 1960s. This led to an increase in federal law enforcement agencies and institutions abroad. The EU on the other hand, has been centred on various forms of cooperation since the outset. The Trevi organisation provided the first major initiative in the policing field in 1975, providing a forum for members to develop common measures against terrorism, drugs, organised crime, police training and technology and other matters. Another important step towards a European law enforcement capacity is the Schengen agreement (1990), which established a number of law enforcement measures, including the Schengen Information System and police cooperation in matters such as hot pursuit, cross border observation and controlled delivery of illegal goods. The signing of the Schengen Treaty, in 1992, formalized aspects of police information exchange across the territory of the European Union (Joubert and Bevers, 1996). While Trevi and Schengen are noteworthy advances in the Development of a European law enforcement capacity, Europol is the most ambitious yet. Maastricht saw Europol as a system of information exchange for the purpose of preventing and combating terrorism, drug trafficking and other serious crimes within the EU, and as a means of providing co-operation in aid of criminal investigations and analyses more generally. The European Home Affairs and Justice Council is a central actor for police cooperation in Europe. The European Commission and the European Parliament only play a marginal role. The EP repeatedly demands more democratic control of transnational policing. But European police cooperation has always been dominated by administrative bodies. These transnational actors are based on collaboration and cooperation; they are not able to act in the interests on one particular state, therefore there are worries that the interests of states are not reflected. Policing is still based for a major part on the concept of law enforcement, For this reason the national (and sub-national) level stays a central point of orientation for international cooperation regimes in this field. The politics and economics of global relations are inherently self-interested, and international policing therefore inevitably reflects only the particular interests of the contributors. International organisations and international law provide the frameworks for international policing and peacekeeping. International organisations are not autonomous actors, but are the handmaids to states interests. Typically, their decision-making bodies require the consent of member states, and resources for implementation are provided by member states. The UN, the OSCE, and large post-colonial groups like the Commonwealth and la francophonie are the principle international organisations which have been involved in peacekeeping and international policing. The USA The United States of America is possibly the exception to the rule regarding the loss of state power. After the Cold War, the USA became the sole global hegemon, leading the way in a variety of areas, from finance to fashion, from television to transnational policing. There are signs that the USA is losing its predominant position in the global order; nevertheless, it is still a powerful nations and capable of setting the agenda, imposing its views and acting in its own interests. Since the 1960s, when the USA began its war on drugs, the country has been taking the lead in transnational policing, so much so that the united states use of force has been compared to the imperial policing of the 19th century  [5]  , and described as the global police. Furthermore, the USA has effectively spread its law enforcement system across the globe, and become involved in issues in other states, when in its interest to do so. This proves that the state is still important in the maintenance of s ecurity and the pursuit of its interests in transnational policing. The internationalization of crime control is primarily the outcome of ambitious efforts by generations of Western powers to export their domestically derived definitions of crime. Not only political and economic interests but also moralizing impulses have determined these definitions and driven many of the most prominent international policing initiatives. Global prohibitions and international crime control priorities and practices would not be what they are today if different states with different values had dominated international society during the past two centuries. Nadelmann, (1993) noted that the USA was uniquely aggressive in promoting its own criminal justice norms in the transnational arena, expanding the scope of criminal law, methods of enforcement, the scope of criminal procedure and leading the way in extra-territorial policing practices. The world leader in this area, the US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), has around 340 employees, agents and support staff, assigned to permanent overseas positions (Fowler, 2008, p. 111). The US Drug Enforcement Agency also has an extensive transnational policing capacity (with 78 offices in 58 countries), as does the US Treasury Department and the State Department Diplomatic Security Service. Today, U.S. federal law enforcement agents target a great array of crimes and criminals: the U.S. DEA is the principal nemesis of transnational drug traffickers; FBI agents abroad investigate terrorist attacks on U.S. citizens and interests as well as white-collar and organized crime. Customs agents focus on a wide variety of frauds against the customs laws. And attorneys in the Departments of State and Justice supervise the rendition of fugitives and the collection of evidence in criminal investigations. These are all State controlled agencies, and despite the highly globalised world in which they operate, these agencies, and agents, posted abroad, are tasked with representing the USA and her interests. This shows that while transnational policing is expanding, and more actors are becoming involved in the process and the setting of the agenda, there is still a place for the state to assert her interests without other public and private actors taking the helm.

Tuesday, November 12, 2019

To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee :: To Kill a Mockingbird Essays

To Kill a Mockingbird by Horton Foote To Kill a Mockingbird is a novel set over sixty years ago in a foreign country, yet it has always been both popular and respected. Consider why the novel is still relevant to readers in 2015. Refer closely to events and characters in the text. ‘To Kill a Mockingbird’ shows that even in the democratic society of the United States, there was discrimination and prejudice in the nineteen-thirties. Although this has been reduced there, in many other countries and regions these conditions still exist for minority groups. Consequently people from a different culture or those who live their lives differently from the majority are still looked down upon and regarded as outsiders. An example of this in the story is the Radley family who live in Maycomb. They have isolated themselves from the community by living strictly within the rules established by the father. The youngest son, Arthur ‘Boo’ Radley is locked up in his house after committing a small crime with his friends, and is blamed for nearly every small offence in Maycomb even if he had not committed anything, â€Å" any stealthy small crimes committed in Maycomb were his work.† In the court case later on in the book, Mayella Ewell, a young white woman, falsely accuses Tom Robinson, a ‘Negro’ of raping her. Tom Robinson is a married white man with three children and a respected member of the black church-going community. There was no circumstantial evidence to prove that he committed any crime. Despite this, the jury, consisting solely of white men, find him guilty, demonstrating their unreasonable bias against black people. Nowadays this is still occurring in many countries, and the story makes us more aware of how easily such racial intolerance can lead to totally false judgements. As Scout starts school, her teacher immediately dislikes her when she discovers that Scout was literate, and the author tells us â€Å" she looked at me with more than faint distaste.† Her teacher also disliked her because she spoke on behalf of Walter Cunningham, who would not

Sunday, November 10, 2019

Statistics Cheat Sheets

The 95% confidence interval indicates that between 14% and 34% of Kayoed rental properties are rented to families Contrary to the claims made by Kayoed, less than 35% of their properties are rented to families. According to a web advertising company, the impact of pop up ads depends on age. A random sample of 60 web surfers are asked if they remember a specific internet ad. The age of each respondent is recorded as teenager', young adult' or ‘over 30'. What analysis would you use to test the hypothesis that teenagers are more likely to remember the pop up ad than young adults or people over 30?Test: Chi-squared test Jane, who works for Universal Bank, wants to know which credit card to recommend to her customers. She believes that VIZIER credit card customers probably get more bonus points than customers of Extraterrestrials credit cards. She records the number of bonus points awarded to a random sample of customers of each card. What analysis would you use to test the hypothes is that VIZIER credit card customers get more bonus points than customers of Extraterrestrials credit cards? Test: Independent Samples t-test It is believed that the age at which a child first talks is related to his or her IQ at age 12.A random sample of one hundred 12 year olds did a standardized IQ test and the age at which they first spoke is recorded. What analysis would you use to test the hypothesis that children who talk earlier tend to have higher IIS? Test: Person's correlation coefficient and regression analysis A sociologist believes that the current economic cellmate NAS resulted In Tower people going to university tan In ten pas t. When seen attended university in the sass, 57% of school leavers continued to tertiary studies. She takes a random sample of 1000 school leavers in the last year and records whether or not they continue their education.What analysis would you use to test the hypothesis that the proportion of school leavers who continue to tertiary studies ha s dropped since the sass? Test: Binomial test Australian adults watch an average of 3 hours of television everyday. A survey was conducted on a random sample of 100 Australian students and the amount of TV watched they watched each day was recorded. What analysis would you use to test the hypothesis that, on average, students watch more TV than the general population? Test: One sample t-test Fred is the barman at the Golden Arms.He always puts free nuts on the counter to make people buy more drinks. Sally tells him that flavored peanuts make people buy more drinks than normal salted peanuts. He gets 20 of his regular customers to help him in an experiment where he gives each of them one type of nut one night and the other type of nut the next night and records how many standard drinks they buy. What analysis would you use to test the hypothesis that flavored peanuts make people buy more drinks than normal salted nuts do? Test: Paired samples t-test

Friday, November 8, 2019

Shortfin Mako Shark essays

Shortfin Mako Shark essays The shortfin mako shark is the fastest fish in the world. It is capable of attaining speeds of up to 60 mph. Its dark red iron-rich muscles on the side of the sharks body and especially on the tail enable the shark to swim at these speeds. The speed of the mako affects its physical characteristics, its eating habits, and its predators. The average size of the shortfin mako shark is from 10 to 12 feet and the largest size ever recorded was 18 feet. This fish weighs about 1,000 pounds. Its large heavy conico-cylindrical shaped body is colored in such a way that it blends into the openwater environment making them invisible to prey. Its back is a deep blue gray and its underparts are snow white. The snout of this shark is bluntly pointed; this helps the shark to speed through the water. Its first dorsal fin, which is short starts behind the pectoral fins. This is unusual compared to other sharks in the mako sharks family. The anal fin is tiny compared to the dorsal fin. The mako has long gill slits and strong caudal keels. The upper and lower lobes of the caudal fin are of almost equal length. The mako has large eyes and is considered one of the most beautiful common sharks. The mako shark is found worldwide in temperate and tropical seas. It is found from the Gulf of Maine to the equator and is most densely populated in the Gulf of Mexico. These sharks are pelagic, yet they are occasionally found inshore. They migrate seasonally about 1,550 miles. In the summertime, mako sharks stay relatively close to the shore, about 20 miles out. In the winter they migrate into substantially deeper waters. They do this so that they can be in water The Isurus oxyrinchus has a two year reproduction cycle. Though few have been seen mating, scientists believe that the male makos attack the females and force them to mate. They believe this ...

Wednesday, November 6, 2019

The Best AP Style Cheat Sheet Every Writer Needs (Free Download)

The Best AP Style Cheat Sheet Every Writer Needs (Free Download) Clarity and consistency are building blocks of great content. When your writing is crisp, clear, and easy to understand, audiences are more likely to leave your site with a positive impression. Unfortunately, many brands forego style guides, and choose to wing it instead. This isn’t necessarily a fatal mistake by any means. However, it does often lead to content that looks sloppy. Without guidelines to enforce consistency, it’s easy to allow your content to become a formatting free-for-all where commas roam free and nothing follows a  clear logic. The results leave your blog or website looking the Wild West of basic grammatical conventions. If this sounds hyperbolic, consider this: newspapers are written to be as effortless to read as possible. Concise writing and consistent style go a long way toward achieving this goal. There’s a reason why your daily paper sounds how it does. It isn’t just a stubborn commitment to rules for their own sake. Does your content need to be perfect to be effective? Not nearly, no. But, everything you can do to enforce consistency and clarity will help your cause. The Best AP Style Cheat Sheet Every Writer Needs (Free Download) Table of Contents: Free Download What is AP Style? Who Uses AP Style? Ages Abbreviations and Acronyms Cities States Dates, Days, Months, Times, and Years Datelines Numbers Sizes, Dimensions, and Distances Punctuation Peoples Names Hyphens Quotes and Quotations Technology Terms Book, Movie, and Song Titles AP Style Checking Tools, Plugins, and Apps Bonus InfographicDownload Your Free AP Style Guide Cheat Sheet If you’d prefer to keep this guide handy in a portable format, you can download the entire thing as a PDF below. This is a good option for reading on tablets, e-readers, or simply keeping on file on your computer.What is AP Style? The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law  official style guide of the Associated Press, a not-for-profit news agency that’s been around since 1846. It’s often used by news organizations, magazines, and web publications, but brands often use it to form the basis of their own style guides, too. The official Associated Press style guide gets updated year to year. Here’s a look at some changes from back in 2016: Arguably, these changes have led to bloat. Detractors say the guide is excessively detailed, beyond the point of being necessary, or even useful. This author doesn’t disagree with this criticism (hence the creation of this simplified blog post). If following this specific style is important for your situation, though, consider buying the official version. It’s available in both digital and hard copies. NOTE: It’s important not to confuse AP style with APA style. Who Uses AP Style? Associated Press style is generally used by journalists, but they aren’t alone in using it. Here’s a short list of folks who might need to get familiar with it: Journalists Editors PR Professionals Marketers How Do You Denote Ages? A person’s age should always use numerals. When using age as an adjective (using their age to describe an individual), then use hyphens. Examples: The 20-year-old was arrested for underage consumption of an alcoholic beverage. At 34-years-old, Larry Fitzgerald remains impressively athletic. The five-year-old dog greets its owner every morning. Abbreviations and Acronyms Use abbreviations for well-known organizations. Acronyms for Organizations Ex: FBI, NASA, IRS, NFL, MLB, NHL, FIFA. For other organizations, spell it out on first mention, then use abbreviations for subsequent mentions. Use your best judgment. If people are unlikely to understand an abbreviation, then don’t use it. Examples: The FBI agent was assigned the case.NASA announced plans to visit Mars. The MLB has not announced hot dog price restrictions for this year. Abbreviations for Formal Titles Make sure your writing respects people’s formal titles. Some examples include political and medical titles. Follow these guidelines: Political titles should be abbreviated before full names outside of direct quotes. Examples: Sen. Heidi Heitkamp, Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger, Rep. John Lewis. Medical titles follow similar format: Example: Dr. Michaela Quinn. Which Cities Stand Alone in AP Style? Some American cities are considered well-known enough they don’t need a state abbreviation. This makes sense, since most people know where they’re located. Here’s the full list of U.S. cities that fall under this criteria: Atlanta Baltimore Boston Chicago Cincinnati Cleveland Dallas Denver Detroit Honolulu Houston Indianapolis Las Vegas Los Angeles Miami Milwaukee Minneapolis New Orleans New York Oklahoma City Philadelphia Phoenix Pittsburgh St. Louis Salt Lake City San Antonio San Diego San Francisco Seattle Washington The same goes for the following international cities and country abbreviations: Amsterdam Baghdad Bangkok Beijing Beirut Berlin Brussels Cairo Djibouti Dublin Geneva Gibraltar Guatemala City Havana Helsinki Hong Kong Islamabad Mexico City Milan Monaco Montreal Moscow Munich New Delhi Panama City Paris Prague Quebec City Rio De Janeiro Rome San Marino Sao Paulo Shanghai Singapore Istanbul Jerusalem Johannesburg Kuwait City London Luxembourg Macau Madrid Stockholm Sydney Tokyo Toronto Vatican City Vienna ZurichHow to Format State Abbreviations Every state in the United States has a specific abbreviation. Some of these may not seem obvious. Follow this list to get them right. Alabama: Ala. Arizona: Ariz. Arkansas: Ark. California: Calif. Colorado: Colo. Connecticut: Conn. Delaware: Del. Florida: Fla. Georgia: Ga. Illinois: Ill. Indiana: Ind. Kansas: Kan. Kentucky: Ky. Louisiana: La. Maryland: Md. Massachusetts: Mass. Michigan: Mich. Minnesota: Minn. Mississippi: Miss. Missouri: Mo. Montana: Mont. Nebraska: Neb. Nevada: Nev. New Hampshire: N.H. New Jersey: N.J. New Mexico: N.M. New York: N.Y. North Carolina: N.C. North Dakota: N.D. Oklahoma: Okla. Oregon: Ore. Pennsylvania: Pa. Rhode Island: R.I. South Carolina: S.C. South Dakota: S.D. Tennessee: Tenn. Virginia: Va. Vermont: Vt. Washington: Wash. West Virginia: W. Va. Wisconsin: Wis. Wyoming: Wyo.Formatting Dates, Days, Months, Times, and Years in AP Style Dates and times have a number of formatting considerations. Dates: Follow this format: Monday (day), July 1 (month + date), 2018 (year). Times: Don’t use colons for times on the hour. Ex: 3 p.m., 8:30 a.m. Days: Omit st., th., rd., and th. Ex: July 1, not July 1st. Months: Abbreviate Jan., Feb., Aug., Sept., Oct., Nov. and Dec. when writing out a specific date. Spell out names of months when not used to indicate a specific date. Ex: Aug. 3, 2018. Years: Use numerals rather than spelling them out. Ex: 2018, not twenty-eighteen. Other Considerations For Dates and Times a.m. and p.m. should use periods and lower case letters. Never say â€Å"yesterday.† Use the day of the week instead. Formatting Datelines News articles often start with a dateline indicating the location, month, date, and year a story took place. Include city (and state if necessary in the U.S.). Examples: FARGO, N.D. (July, 1, 2018) MILWAUKEE (July 1, 2018) LONDON (July 1, 2018) Numbers Spell out numbers one through nine, and use digits for numbers 10 and higher. The following exceptions, however, should always use digits: Addresses Ages Monetary values. Dates and times. Sizes and dimensions. Percents. Speeds. Temperatures. When Should Numerals Be Used? Use numerals when referring to a sequence of events or people. Examples: Super Bowl XLV Queen Elizabeth II World War I What About Percentages? Always use the full word â€Å"percent.† The % sign shouldn’t be used. That key might feel neglected, but it’s okay. Example: The analyst predicted a 100 percent increase in site traffic. Sentences Starting With Years Avoid starting sentences with a number, unless referencing a year. Example: 1977 was the last year the Minnesota Vikings went to the Super Bowl. Sizes, Dimensions, and Distances Sizes and dimensions should use numerals and spell out units of measurement. The same goes for distances. Examples: The party sandwich was 10 feet long. The delivery driver traveled 12 miles during harsh weather. Bill Smith is 6-foot-5 and plays basketball in his spare time. Punctuation in AP Style You learned everything you needed to know about punctuation in high school English class, right? Well, maybe or maybe not, but this style has quirks of its own to consider. General Punctuation Here are some general punctuation guidelines: Use a single space after a period. Commas should go inside quotation marks. Serial Commas In AP style, commas are not included before conjunctions. However, they should be used to separate each item in a list. Example: I ate a hot dog, pizza slice, burger, and an entire pie. Using Periods Lean toward using periods in abbreviations where applicable. Example: Examples: U.N., M.A., U.S.A. Singular Nouns Ending in S When proper nouns end in an S, add an apostrophe at the end. Example: Sally Jones’ red stapler has been stolen. People’s Names Use their first and last name on first mention. Then, use only their last name on subsequent mentions. Example: David Johnson is a professional running back. Johnson plays for the Arizona Cardinals. Using Hyphens Correctly Use hyphens to connect words in compound adjectives. Example: The larger-than-life performer juggled seven swords. Formatting Quotes and Quotations Here are two points about quotation marks: Periods and commas always go within quotation marks. Use single quotations for quotes within quotes. Example: â€Å"The candy truck spilled all over the highway,† said the driver. â€Å"It’s a real ‘sticky situation’ on I-94.† Technology Terms There are more tech terms and brand names to consider coming out every day. Here’s a list of some common ones you may encounter. Google hashtag Internet Apple â€Å"i† products: iPad, iPod, iPhone, iMac, unless the word starts a sentence. Then, capitalize the I. e-book email Facebook LinkedIn Twitter tweet website Web page YouTube social media cellphone World Wide Web Android AppleUsing Correct AP Style for Book, Movie, and Song Titles Your favorite author, director, or musician isn’t likely to write you an angry letter over incorrect style usage when it comes to their art. An editor probably will, though. Here’s how to get it right every time. Books, Movies, and Song Titles Use quotation marks rather than italics. This goes against what likely feels right, and how you’d normally format them, but those are the rules. Examples: J.K. Rowling is the author of â€Å"Harry Potter and the Sorcerer's Stone.† â€Å"Party in the USA† does not make me feel like partying. It turns out that â€Å"Total Recall† was not a documentary. Newspaper, Magazine, and Website Names Use capitalization but no quotation marks nor italics. This blog post uses italics to highlight examples, so the publication names below have been rendered in normal paragraph text. Examples: The Guardian is a well-respected newspaper. Wired is a popular magazine for tech enthusiasts. Bob Jones is unsure where his Cat Fancy subscription came from. Other Considerations Capitalize formal titles before people’s names. Do not capitalize job titles before names. Use quotation marks for titles of books, movies, albums, and TV shows. AP Style Checking Tools, Plugins, and Apps Keeping all of this information straight can be a hassle (and this post only covers the majority of the most important elements to consider). Fortunately, there are several tools and plugins on the market that can help. Here are some worth checking out: AP Style Dates and Times (WordPress Plugin) AP Lingofy (Browser Extension) AP Style Guard (Desktop App) Bonus: AP Style Infographic That’s a Wrap Are there any details we missed? Drop a comment below and share with other readers.

Sunday, November 3, 2019

Marketing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words - 14

Marketing - Essay Example Approximately 25% are sold through salons and the remainder through major retailers. Manufactures can open a chain of salons, which utilize and market their line exclusively, and the consumers are not a focused group. Barriers To Entry: There are few barriers to entry or exit for this product. An initial approval by the FDA is easily accomplished by using pre-approved materials in approved quantities. Exit from the market is not hindered, as assets would be reusable on another product line. Threat of Substitutes: The product may be threatened by a fashion move away from straight hair. This is partially facilitated in a recessed economy as less money is spent on hair care products and the consumer is likely to accept curly hair. Rivalry: There is an intense rivalry in the hair care sector. There are a large number of suppliers selling in a slow growth sector. Most of the products are very similar and are set off only by brand recognition. Customers are free to choose among many brands and the limited market for hair straighteners is not conducive to long term concentrated ad campaigns. There are also low risks involved with abandoning a product line. Production lines and equipment are generic to many products. Strengths: The major strength is that the product works in a matter of minutes, which is faster than our competitors. We also have an approved product and the experience to take it to market. At scale, it can be produced it at a competitive price. Weaknesses: Our major weakness is a lack of brand recognition. This will make it difficult to penetrate the lucrative salon market. We are also faced with a situation that makes it necessary to ramp up sales quickly while having limited advertising opportunities. Exploiting the speed of the product may create an attraction for salons and customers. Opportunities: There is the opportunity to exploit the unique speed at which the product works. This could develop

Friday, November 1, 2019

Discussion Board Post Response Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 13

Discussion Board Post Response - Essay Example t (2010), such behavior could have an indirect expense on the organization in terms of "Damaged team morale, lost opportunities to manage future-oriented projects, and increased incidence of disruptive behavior by organizational insiders and emotional costs" (p. 149). If feedback is not given to the primary care supervisor to help prevent such behavior, then other group members could be discouraged to be involved in other projects where the primary care supervisor is present. Hope, the example you gave is a classic representation of many workplaces. Bullying is prevalent in many organizations and if not addressed effectively, it could lead to decreased productivity. Effective relationships in the workplace are imperative as they contribute to improved job satisfaction, nurse retention, and also improved results in nursing practice (Barrett et-al, 2009). In reference to your example, favoring some employees could make other employees feel devalued and hence leave the organization. Failure to take action against bullying affects employees engagement and involvement in care practices. In other words, bullied employees are less likely to engage in teamwork for fear of being harassed. In my organization, policies have been implemented to ensure such cases are reported expeditiously and punitive actions taken against perpetrators. This helps prevent bullying and as a result, improved productivity has been